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This study was conducted to develop a detailed, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate finite element model of the human cervical spine structure using close-up computed tomography scans and to validate against experimental data. The finite element model of the three vertebra segment C4-C6 unit consisted of 9178 solid elements and 1193 thin shell(More)
Fifteen fresh, intact, human male cadavers suspended head down were dropped vertically from a height of 0.9-1.5 meters. In eight specimens the heads were restrained to simulate muscle forces. The head-neck complex was oriented for maximal axial loading of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. In several cadavers, load cells were placed in cervical bodies.(More)
This study was conducted to evaluate the biodynamic strength and localized kinematic response of the human cervical spine under axial loading applied to the head. Intact ligamentous fresh human cadaveric head-neck complexes were subjected to dynamic compressive forces with a custom-designed electrohydraulic testing device at varying rates. The structure(More)
Three intact cadavers and 10 isolated cervical spinal columns underwent compression, with forces directed vertically, forward, or rearward. Failure modes were often different than force directions. The loads required to produce bony injury or ligamentous disruption ranged from 645 to 7439 N. Flexion and extension injuries were produced at approximately 50%(More)
The lateral extracavitary approach to the spine was used for resection of displaced bpne and disc located anterior to the dura in 62 patients with traumatic lesions of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Fifty-two patients had closed vertebral fractures and 10 had gunshot wounds. The spinal cord was involved in 44 patients, and the cauda equina in 18. A spinal(More)
The early somatosensory evoked potential secondary to median nerve stimulation in the human had an onset latency of 9--12 msec when recorded from scalp electrodes at vertex-to-mastoid, vertex-to-inion or at the base of the skull. Similar latencies were observed from responses recorded over the cervical dorsal columns during neurologic surgery. A latency(More)