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This study was conducted to develop a detailed, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate finite element model of the human cervical spine structure using close-up computed tomography scans and to validate against experimental data. The finite element model of the three vertebra segment C4-C6 unit consisted of 9178 solid elements and 1193 thin shell(More)
The early somatosensory evoked potential secondary to median nerve stimulation in the human had an onset latency of 9--12 msec when recorded from scalp electrodes at vertex-to-mastoid, vertex-to-inion or at the base of the skull. Similar latencies were observed from responses recorded over the cervical dorsal columns during neurologic surgery. A latency(More)
The lateral extracavitary approach to the spine was used for resection of displaced bpne and disc located anterior to the dura in 62 patients with traumatic lesions of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Fifty-two patients had closed vertebral fractures and 10 had gunshot wounds. The spinal cord was involved in 44 patients, and the cauda equina in 18. A spinal(More)
Twenty-three patients were operated upon for thoracic disc herniation between 1973 and 1982. The lateral approach to the vertebral column was used in each. Most patients had severe local pain; 13 had severe myelopathy or complete motor paralysis, including 4 who had become paraplegic after laminectomy. Eleven patients had calcified discs or osteophytic(More)
Ninety-nine patients with cervical spine fractures from C-4 through C-7 were operated upon from 1975 to 1981. Operation was performed to restore normal relationships between the spinal cord and roots and the spinal canal and foramina and to maintain these relationships by fusion when necessary. Neurological function was recorded pre- and postoperatively(More)
A series of 105 operative cases of thoracic and lumbar spine trauma is presented. All patients underwent an anterior decompression and fusion via the lateral extracavity approach with or without an accompanying posterior internal stabilization procedure (modified Weiss springs or Harrington distraction rods). All patients were allowed to plateau(More)
The LECA is a technically challenging procedure with a steep learning curve. It is one of the most versatile approaches to the spine, however,with a logical sequence of maneuvers that can be combined to adapt the LECA for many different spinal procedures that need to be performed for decompression of the spinal cord and reconstruction of the spinal column(More)
A total of 28 cases of cervical spine dislocation with bilateral locking of facets treated between 1976 and 1984 were analyzed to determine whether treatment modality had any effect on outcome based on cord or root function. Motor vehicle accidents were responsible for 19 cases; the most common levels of dislocation were C-5, C-6 and C-6, C-7, with 10 each.(More)
During the past two decades, various reports on the management of odontoid and axis body fractures have been published and new methods of treatment have been developed. So far, there is no consensus, and management remains controversial. This article reviews the literature and formulates recommendations based on clinical experience.