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This study was conducted to develop a detailed, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate finite element model of the human cervical spine structure using close-up computed tomography scans and to validate against experimental data. The finite element model of the three vertebra segment C4-C6 unit consisted of 9178 solid elements and 1193 thin shell(More)
The early somatosensory evoked potential secondary to median nerve stimulation in the human had an onset latency of 9--12 msec when recorded from scalp electrodes at vertex-to-mastoid, vertex-to-inion or at the base of the skull. Similar latencies were observed from responses recorded over the cervical dorsal columns during neurologic surgery. A latency(More)
The lateral extracavitary approach to the spine was used for resection of displaced bpne and disc located anterior to the dura in 62 patients with traumatic lesions of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Fifty-two patients had closed vertebral fractures and 10 had gunshot wounds. The spinal cord was involved in 44 patients, and the cauda equina in 18. A spinal(More)
Twenty-three patients were operated upon for thoracic disc herniation between 1973 and 1982. The lateral approach to the vertebral column was used in each. Most patients had severe local pain; 13 had severe myelopathy or complete motor paralysis, including 4 who had become paraplegic after laminectomy. Eleven patients had calcified discs or osteophytic(More)
Ninety-nine patients with cervical spine fractures from C-4 through C-7 were operated upon from 1975 to 1981. Operation was performed to restore normal relationships between the spinal cord and roots and the spinal canal and foramina and to maintain these relationships by fusion when necessary. Neurological function was recorded pre- and postoperatively(More)
The diagnosis of thoracic disc herniation can be difficult due to the lack of a characteristic clinical presentation. In six recent cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provided excellent noninvasive definition of the pathology and its level, in spite of atypical clinical presentation, and also provided anatomic information allowing surgical planning.(More)