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The titer of the scrapie agent was determined by measurements of time intervals from inoculation to onset of illness and from inoculation to death. Both intervals were found to be inversely proportional to the size of the dose injected intracerebrally into random-bred weanling Syrian hamsters. The logarithms of the time intervals minus a time factor were(More)
The scrapie agent causes a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system of animals after a prolonged incubation period. Measurements of incubation period length, defined as the time from inoculation to the onset of clinical signs of neurological dysfunction, were related to the titer of the agent and the dilution of the inoculated sample.(More)
The scrapie agent causes a degenerative nervous system disorder of sheep and goats. Considerable evidence indicates that the scrapie agent contains a protein that is necessary for infectivity [Prusiner, S. B., Groth, D. F., Cochran, S. P., Masiarz, F. R., McKinley, M. P. & Martinez, H. M. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 4883-4891], but direct demonstration of a(More)
To probe the macromolecular structure of the scrapie agent and explore conditions for monomerization, the stability of the agent in low concentrations of inorganic ions was determined. A reduction by a factor of 10(5) in scrapie titer was found on exposure of the agent to 1 M KSCN or 0.3 M NaOH. In addition to the inactivation by thiocyanate ions, other(More)
Sedimentation profiles of the scrapie agent in extracts of murine spleen and brain were determined by analytical differential centrifugation. Infectivity profiles of the agent from the two tissues were similar. Sedimentation of the agent was not substantially altered by detergent treatment with sodium deoxycholate. In the presence of detergent,(More)
A procedure for the partial purification of the scrapie agent from mouse spleen was developed based on its sedimentation profile. Differential centrifugation and detergent treatment with sodium deoxycholate yielded a fraction designated "P5" which was enriched for scrapie infectivity approximately 20-fold with respect to cellular protein. The P5 fraction(More)
Dental erosion and decay are increasingly prevalent but as yet there is no quantitative monitoring tool. Such a tool would allow earlier diagnosis and treatment and ultimately the prevention of more serious disease and pain. Despite ultrasound having been demonstrated as a method of probing the internal structures of teeth more than 40 years ago,(More)
Progress in studies on the scrapie agent has been hampered by the slow and tedious endpoint titration assays in rodents. A new assay based on incubation period measurements has been developed. The incubation period is defined as the time interval from inoculation to the onset of clinically detectable neurological illness or as the interval from inoculation(More)
Lithium niobate, LiNbO3, is a very promising material for high temperature applications in non-destructive testing because of its high Curie temperature. However, for commercial applications LiNbO3 has often been neglected because of its low electromechanical coupling coefficients. This paper explores the potential of LiNbO3 composites, by means of room(More)