Sandy Cairncross

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We set out to determine the impact of washing hands with soap on the risk of diarrhoeal diseases in the community with a systematic review with random effects meta-analysis. Our data sources were studies linking handwashing with diarrhoeal diseases. Seven intervention studies, six case-control, two cross-sectional, and two cohort studies were located from(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register, CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, LILACS; hand searching; and correspondence with experts and relevant organisations. STUDY SELECTION(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs,(More)
Globally, around 2.4 million deaths (4.2% of all deaths) [1] could be prevented annually if everyone practised appropriate hygiene and had good, reliable sanitation and drinking water. These deaths are mostly of children in developing countries from diarrhoea and subsequent malnutrition, and from other diseases attributable to malnutrition. How is an(More)
To assess water-related risk factors of Buruli ulcer, a case-control study of 102 patients (51 cases and 51 controls) was undertaken by matching age group, sex, and bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination history in Ghana. The factors used here for matching have previously been implicated as factors of Buruli ulcer, an emerging infectious disease. This is(More)
Point-of-use water treatment (household water treatment, HWT) has been advocated as a means to substantially decrease the global burden of diarrhea and to contribute to the Millennium Development Goals. To determine whether HWT should be scaled up now, we reviewed the evidence on acceptability, scalability, adverse effects, and nonhealth benefits as the(More)
Unless strategies are found to galvanise rural communities and create a demand for sanitation, we cannot achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal of halving the 2.4 billion people without sanitation by the year 2015. This study describes an innovative methodology used in Zimbabwe--Community Health Clubs--which significantly changed hygiene(More)
Community health workers (CHWs) are an important element of many health systems and programmes for the promotion and delivery of a wide range of health interventions and disease surveillance. Understanding the motivation and retention of CHWs is recognized as essential but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa. This qualitative study explored factors(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases. METHODS For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure(More)
More than a third of the world's population (2.4 billion people) lacks access to adequate excreta disposal. Four in five of these unserved people are in Asia, with approximately one in five in both India and China, respectively. Even in large Asian cities, less than half of those served are using sewerage systems; the others use on-site systems, from pit(More)