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The standard model of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes involves tandem arrays with hundreds of units in clusters, the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). A first genomic overview for human cells is reported here for these regions, which have never been sequenced in their totality, by using molecular combing. The rRNA-coding regions are examined by(More)
There is growing evidence that duplications have played a major role in eucaryotic genome evolution. Sequencing data revealed the presence of large duplicated regions in the genomes of many eucaryotic organisms, and comparative studies have suggested that duplication of large DNA segments has been a continuing process during evolution. However, little(More)
The Forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 plays a crucial role in ovarian development and maintenance. In humans, its mutations lead to craniofacial abnormalities, isolated or associated with ovarian dysfunction. Using a combinatorial approach, we identified and characterized a FoxL2 response element (FLRE) and showed that it is highly specific and that it(More)
Blepharophimosis syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterised by eyelid malformations, associated or not with premature ovarian failure. It is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene, which encodes a forkhead transcription factor containing a polyalanine (polyAla) domain of 14 alanines. Expansions of the polyAla tract from 14 to 24 residues account(More)
Premature ovarian failure is a major cause of female infertility. The genetic causes of this disorder remain unknown in most patients. Using whole-exome sequence analysis of a large consanguineous family with inherited premature ovarian failure, we identified a homozygous 1-bp deletion inducing a frameshift mutation in STAG3 on chromosome 7. STAG3 encodes a(More)
BACKGROUND The human condition known as Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is characterized by loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. A majority of POF cases are sporadic, but 10-15% are familial, suggesting a genetic origin of the disease. Although several causal mutations have been identified, the etiology of POF is still unknown for about 90% of the(More)
The rapid generation of new shapes observed in the living world is the result of genetic variation, especially in "morphological" developmental genes. Many of these genes contain coding tandem repeats. Fondon and Garner have shown that expansions and contractions of these repeats are associated with the great diversity of morphologies observed in the(More)
The transcription factor Forkhead box L subfamily member 2 (FOXL2) is involved in craniofacial development and ovarian function. Using 2-DE and immunoblotting, we show that it is highly modified post-translationally. The most outstanding feature of its migration profile is the presence of two distinct modification "trains" and the absence of intermediates.(More)
Genomic instability is one of the major features of cancer cells. The clinical phenotypes associated with several human diseases have been linked to recurrent DNA rearrangements and dysfunction of DNA replication processes that involve unstable genomic regions. Analysis of these rearrangements, which are frequently submicroscopic and can lead to loss or(More)
Forkhead box (FOX) proteins constitute an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors with a central role not only during development, but also in the adult organism. Thus, the misregulation and/or mutation of FOX genes often induce human genetic diseases, promote cancer or deregulate ageing. Indeed, germinal FOX gene mutations cause diseases(More)