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Bioprinting is a process based on additive manufacturing from materials containing living cells. These materials, often referred to as bioink, are based on cytocompatible hydrogel precursor formulations, which gel in a manner compatible with different bioprinting approaches. The bioink properties before, during and after gelation are essential for its(More)
In the present work, 3D CAD scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were developed starting from methacrylamide-modified gelatin (GelMOD) using two-photon polymerization (2PP). The scaffolds were cross-linked employing the biocompatible photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. Because gelatin is derived from collagen (i.e., the main constituent of the ECM), the(More)
Hydrogels are physically or chemically cross-linked polymer networks that are able to absorb large amounts of water. They can be classified into different categories depending on various parameters including the preparation method, the charge, and the mechanical and structural characteristics. The present review aims to give an overview of hydrogels based(More)
The combined potential of hydrogels and rapid prototyping technologies has been an exciting route in developing tissue engineering scaffolds for the past decade. Hydrogels represent to be an interesting starting material for soft, and lately also for hard tissue regeneration. Their application enables the encapsulation of cells and therefore an increase of(More)
The two-photon polymerization (2PP) of photosensitive gelatin in the presence of living cells is reported. The 2PP technique is based on the localized cross-linking of photopolymers induced by femtosecond laser pulses. The availability of water-soluble photoinitiators (PI) suitable for 2PP is crucial for applying this method to cell-containing materials.(More)
The last decade has witnessed enormous research focused on cationic polymers. Cationic polymers are the subject of intense research as non-viral gene delivery systems, due to their flexible properties, facile synthesis, robustness and proven gene delivery efficiency. Here, we review the most recent scientific advances in cationic polymers and their(More)
The design, development and evaluation of biomaterials that can sustain life or restore a certain body function, is a very important and rapidly expanding field in materials science. A key issue in the development of biomaterials is the design of a material that mimics the natural environment of cells. In the present work, we have therefore developed(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers versatile possibilities for adapting the structural parameters of tissue engineering scaffolds. However, it is also essential to develop procedures allowing efficient cell seeding independent of scaffold geometry and pore size. The aim of this study was to establish a method for seeding the scaffolds using(More)
The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the(More)
Biomaterials have been widely used in reconstructive bone surgery to heal critical-size long bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, and tissue degeneration. In particular, gelatin cryogel scaffolds are promising new biomaterials owing to their biocompatibility; in addition, the in vitro modification of biomaterials with osteogenic signals enhances the(More)