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While most supervised machine learning models assume that training examples are sampled at random or adversarially, this article is concerned with models of learning from a cooperative teacher that selects " helpful " training examples. The number of training examples a learner needs for identifying a concept in a given class C of possible target concepts(More)
This paper is concerned with the combinatorial structure of concept classes that can be learned from a small number of examples. We show that the recently introduced notion of recursive teaching dimension (RTD, reflecting the complexity of teaching a concept class) is a relevant parameter in this context. Comparing the RTD to self-directed learning, we(More)
ion is a powerful technique for speeding up planning and search. A problem that can arise in using abstraction is the generation of abstract states, called spurious states, from which the goal state is reachable in the abstract space but for which there is no corresponding state in the original space from which the goal state can be reached. Spurious states(More)
Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.(More)
In the past 40 years, research on inductive inference has developed along different lines, e.g., in the formalizations used, and in the classes of target concepts considered. One common root of many of these formalizations is Gold's model of identification in the limit. This model has been studied for learning recursive functions, recur-sively enumerable(More)
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has been the consolidator for many ideas regarding the evolution of the World Wide Web (WWW), including the promotion of the so-called " Semantic Layer Cake " model for the development of the semantic web. The semantic layer cake provides a framework to discuss a variety of approaches to an integrated view of the(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t We investigate the use of machine learning to(More)
Different formal learning models address different aspects of human learning. Below we compare Gold-style learning—interpreting learning as a limiting process in which the learner may change its mind arbitrarily often before converging to a correct hypothesis—to learning via queries—interpreting learning as a one-shot process in which the learner is(More)
Different formal learning models address different aspects of learning. Below we compare learning via queries—interpreting learning as a one-shot process in which the learner is required to identify the target concept with just one hypothesis—to Gold-style learning—interpreting learning as a limiting process in which the learner may change its mind(More)