Sandra Whalen

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OBJECTIVE Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is defined by FMR1 premutation, cerebellar ataxia, intentional tremor, and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) hyperintensities. We delineate the clinical, neurophysiologic, and morphologic characteristics of FXTAS. METHODS Clinical, morphologic (brain MRI, (123)I-ioflupane SPECT), and(More)
Mutations in PCDH19, encoding protocadherin 19 on chromosome X, cause familial epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females or Dravet-like syndrome. Heterozygous females are affected while hemizygous males are spared, this unusual mode of inheritance being probably due to a mechanism called cellular interference. To extend the mutational and clinical(More)
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PHS) is a probably underdiagnosed, syndromic mental retardation disorder, marked by hyperventilation episodes and characteristic dysmorphism (large beaked nose, wide mouth, fleshy lips, and clubbed fingertips). PHS was shown to be caused by de novo heterozygous mutations of the TCF4 gene, located in 18q21. We selected for this study(More)
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), characterized by severe intellectual disability and typical facial gestalt, is part of the clinical spectrum of Rett-like syndromes. TCF4, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, was identified as the disease-causing gene with de novo molecular defects. While PTHS appears to be a recognizable clinical(More)
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) and Lenz microphthalmia syndromes form part of a spectrum of X-linked microphthalmia disorders characterized by ocular, dental, cardiac and skeletal anomalies and mental retardation. The two syndromes are allelic, caused by mutations in the BCL-6 corepressor gene (BCOR). To extend the series of phenotypes associated with(More)
Laboratory automation is in its infancy, following a path parallel to the development of laboratory information systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Changes on the horizon in healthcare and clinical laboratory service that affect the delivery of laboratory results include the increasing age of the population in North America, the implementation of the(More)
Myhre syndrome is a very rare condition described thirty years ago and related to mutations in the SMAD4 gene. It has been reported in 19 patients, including 13 males and 6 females before the recent finding of heterozygous mutations in the SMAD4 gene in 19 patients. It is characterized by mental retardation, short stature, muscle hypertrophy, limitation of(More)
Copy number variants (CNVs) have repeatedly been found to cause or predispose to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). For diagnostic purposes, we screened 194 individuals with ASDs for CNVs using Illumina SNP arrays. In several probands, we also analyzed candidate genes located in inherited deletions to unmask autosomal recessive variants. Three CNVs, a de(More)
The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly(More)