Sandra Tong-Starksen

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Activation of T lymphocytes infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) results in enhancement of viral replication mediated in part by activation of cellular NF kappa B capable of binding directly to sequences in the viral long terminal repeat, or LTR. Together with CD4+ T cells, macrophages constitute a major target for infection by HIV-1.(More)
T cell activation results in high levels of HIV replication and is thought to be one mechanism leading to the conversion from latent to active viral infection. In HIV-1, the sequences that respond to these signaling events are found in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and comprise the transcriptional enhancer, which contains two conserved binding sites for(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) gene is elevated in most tenosynovial giant-cell tumors. This observation has led to the discovery and clinical development of therapy targeting the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). METHODS Using x-ray co-crystallography to guide our drug-discovery research, we generated a potent, selective CSF1R(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS, infects and kills lymphoid cells bearing the CD4 antigen. In an infected cell, a number of cellular as well as HIV-encoded gene products determine the levels of viral gene expression and HIV replication. Efficient HIV-replication occurs in activated T cells. Utilizing transient expression(More)
The caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) long terminal repeat (LTR) is activated by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in promonocytic cells. We have previously shown that a 70-bp element is necessary and sufficient for the response of the CAEV LTR to this cytokine. At the 5' end, this 70-bp IFN-gamma response element contains sequence similarity to the(More)
BACKGROUND Peginesatide is a peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) that may have therapeutic potential for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of peginesatide, as compared with another ESA, darbepoetin, in 983 such patients who were not undergoing dialysis. METHODS In two randomized,(More)
To determine conditions for optimal trans-activation by Tat of HIV-2, genomic DNAs and cDNAs encoding Tat of HIV-2 were tested on their homologous (HIV-2) and heterologous (HIV-1) long terminal repeats (LTRs). It has been previously reported that Tat of HIV-2 could efficiently trans-activate only its own LTR but not that of HIV-1. The inefficient(More)
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lymphotropic lentivirus whose replication increases during monocyte maturation. We examined gene expression directed by the CAEV long terminal repeat (LTR) in a promonocytic cell line stimulated with several agents. Our results demonstrate that the CAEV LTR is activated by treatment of immature monocytes with(More)
Tat of HIV-2 (Tat-2) requires host cellular factors for optimal function. We show that transactivation by Tat-2 of the HIV promoter requires cis-acting binding sites for Sp1 or Sp1 brought to the promoter via a heterologous system. We demonstrate that an activation domain in Tat-2 consists of one of two potential alpha-helices in the amino-terminal region,(More)
HIV-1 and HIV-2 are human retroviruses whose life cycles require viral regulatory proteins, one of which is the trans-activator, Tat. Tat of HIV-1 (Tat-1) displays modular function with independent activation function localized to the amino-terminal, cysteine-rich, and core regions and independent RNA-binding function localized to a basic region. These(More)
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