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Genome-wide association studies have identified many noncoding variants associated with common diseases and traits. We show that these variants are concentrated in regulatory DNA marked by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Eighty-eight percent of such DHSs are active during fetal development and are enriched in variants associated(More)
MicroRNAs are abundant in animal genomes and have been predicted to have important roles in a broad range of gene expression programmes. Despite this prominence, there is a dearth of functional knowledge regarding individual mammalian microRNAs. Using a loss-of-function allele in mice, we report here that the myeloid-specific microRNA-223 (miR-223)(More)
To study the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory DNA, we mapped >1.3 million deoxyribonuclease I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in 45 mouse cell and tissue types, and systematically compared these with human DHS maps from orthologous compartments. We found that the mouse and human genomes have undergone extensive cis-regulatory rewiring that combines(More)
Flowers develop from floral meristems, which harbor stem cells that support the growth of floral organs. The MADS domain transcription factor AGAMOUS (AG) plays a central role in floral patterning and is required not only for the specification of the two reproductive organ types, but also for termination of stem cell fate. Using a highly conserved(More)
Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor (TF) recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe an approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide(More)
As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. Since plants grow and initiate new organs continuously, they have to modulate the underlying developmental program accordingly to cope with this challenge. At the heart of this extraordinary developmental plasticity are pluripotent stem(More)
Despite advances in the identification of lymphoid-restricted progenitor cells, the transcription factors essential for their generation remain to be identified. Here we describe an unexpected function for the myeloid oncogene product Mef2c in lymphoid development. Mef2c deficiency was associated with profound defects in the production of B cells, T cells,(More)
The Mds1 and Evi1 complex locus (Mecom) gives rise to several alternative transcripts implicated in leukemogenesis. However, the contribution that Mecom-derived gene products make to normal hematopoiesis remains largely unexplored. To investigate the role of the upstream transcription start site of Mecom in adult hematopoiesis, we created a mouse model with(More)
Elevated fetal hemoglobin (HbF) ameliorates the clinical severity of hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Currently, the only curative approach for individuals under chronic transfusion/chelation support therapy is allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, recent analyses of heritable variations in HbF levels have provided a(More)
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