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Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main event leading to the induction of the ER stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent postmortem evaluation, showing that the UPR pathway is activated in nigral dopaminergic neurons bearing α-synuclein inclusions in the brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients,(More)
Activation of the nuclear factor jB/c-Rel can increase neuronal resilience to pathological noxae by regulating the expression of pro-survival manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, now known as SOD2) and Bcl-xL genes. We show here that c-Rel-deficient (c-rel À / À) mice developed a Parkinson's disease-like neuropathology with ageing. At 18 months of age,(More)
Evidence indicate that it is difficult to obtain specific antibodies to G protein-coupled receptors and different technical difficulties may allow the generation of antibodies that lack specificity. We conducted experiments to validate the specificity of commercially available antibodies raised against dopamine (DA) receptors hD(1), hD(4), and hD(5) using a(More)
Mesolimbocortical dopamine plays a role in learning and memory. The specific receptor subtypes mediating the effects of dopamine, however, are still unknown. Dopamine D2, D3 and D4 receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and dopamine D3 receptors are present in the septal area, suggesting that these receptor subtypes can contribute to the behavioral(More)
Reelin (RELN) is a key molecule for the regulation of neuronal migration in the developing CNS. The reeler mice, which have spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation in the RELN gene, reveal multiple defects in brain development. Morphological, neurochemical and behavioral alterations have been detected in heterozygous reeler (HR) mice, suggesting that not(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is well characterized for its neurotrophic actions on peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons and on central cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. Recent evidence, however, has shown high levels of NGF to be present in a variety of biological fluids after inflammatory and autoimmune responses, suggesting that NGF is a(More)
AIM Several studies have proposed a role for alpha1 adrenoceptors (ARs) in ureteral physiology, indicating that they are present in the ureter; however, few studies have been done to identify alpha1 AR subtypes present in this area. Thus, this study was carried out to characterize the alpha1 AR subtype gene and protein expression in proximal, medial, and(More)
The effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and on brain acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release were investigated in rats. Oral administration of alpha-GPC 3 h before the behavioural test prevented the learning impairment induced by scopolamine given 30 min before the acquisition of a passive(More)
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcriptional regulator of neuron survival eliciting diverse effects according to the specific composition of its active dimer. While p50/p65 mediates neurodegenerative events, c-Rel-containing dimers promote cell survival. Stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 5 (mGlu5) reduces neuron vulnerability to(More)
Activation of the nuclear factor κB/c-Rel can increase neuronal resilience to pathological noxae by regulating the expression of pro-survival manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, now known as SOD2) and Bcl-xL genes. We show here that c-Rel-deficient (c-rel(-/-)) mice developed a Parkinson's disease-like neuropathology with ageing. At 18 months of age,(More)