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BACKGROUND Diabetes-associated cardiac dysfunction is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which may contribute to left ventricular dysfunction. The contribution of altered myocardial insulin action, independent of associated changes in systemic metabolism, is incompletely understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in obese humans and animals demonstrated increased myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was performed(More)
AIMS Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased myocardial fatty acid (FA) utilization, insulin resistance, and cardiac dysfunction. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that impaired glucose utilization accounts for initial changes in FA metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS Ten-week-old C57BL6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories(More)
Evidence exists that protein kinase C and the mammalian target of rapamycin are important regulators of cardiac hypertrophy. We examined the contribution of these signaling kinases to cardiac growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Systolic blood pressure was increased (P<0.001) at 10 weeks in SHRs versus Wistar-Kyoto controls (162+/-3 versus(More)
Osteopontin (OPN), an RGD-containing extracellular matrix protein, is associated with arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation in vitro and in vivo. Many cytokines and growth factors involved in vessel wall remodeling induce OPN overexpression. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that the extracellular nucleotide UTP also induces OPN expression and that(More)
These studies investigate the role of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in cardiac energy metabolism, cardiac O(2) consumption (MVO(2)), cardiac efficiency (CE), and mitochondrial uncoupling in high fat (HF)-fed or leptin-deficient mice. UCP3KO and wild-type (WT) mice were fed normal chow or HF diets for 10 weeks. Substrate utilization rates, MVO(2), CE, and(More)
The media of the rat hepatic portal vein is composed of an internal circular muscular layer (CL) and an external longitudinal muscular layer (LL). These two perpendicular layers differentiate progressively from mesenchymal cells within the first month after birth. In this paper, we studied the development of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(More)
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