Sandra Schwarcz

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OBJECTIVES This study assessed the countervailing effects on HIV incidence of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) among San Francisco men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS Behavioral risk was determined on the basis of responses to cross-sectional community interviews. HIV incidence was assessed through application of an enzyme-linked(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence and characteristics of persons with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections with or without evidence of mutations associated with drug resistance have not been well described. METHODS Drug-naive persons in whom HIV had been diagnosed during the previous 12 months and who did not have acquired immune(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and increased AIDS survival time, but little is known about its impact on cancer. Data from adults in the San Francisco, California, AIDS surveillance registry were computer matched with the California Cancer Registry. Age-, sex-,(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate trends in the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco and the implications for HIV prevention. METHODS An ecological approach assessed temporal trends in sexual risk behaviour, sexually transmitted infections (STI), HIV incidence and prevalence from multiple data sources between 1998 and 2007. RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Persons diagnosed late in the course of HIV infection may be unknowingly transmitting infection and once diagnosed may have worse outcomes and greater medical expenses. METHODS Persons diagnosed with AIDS in San Francisco between 2001 and 2005 were included. Late testers were persons diagnosed with HIV 12 months or less before their AIDS(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the prevalence of HIV and novel cofactors of high-transmission-risk behavior in a probability sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS We performed a cross-sectional telephone survey of 1976 adult MSM in San Francisco. RESULTS We found an HIV prevalence of 25.2%. Predictors of unprotected insertive anal(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved survival after AIDS. The benefits of HAART have not been equally realized for all communities, however. We characterize the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with survival after AIDS diagnosis in San Francisco in the period before (1980-1995) and after (1996 - 2001) the wider use(More)
The authors conducted a community-based anonymous survey of 837 men who have sex with men (MSM) to gauge the extent of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) use, its association with high-risk sexual behavior, and its combination with other drugs. Participants' mean age was 35 years, 67% were white, and 66% had a college degree. The majority (76%) reported anal sex(More)
The authors compared temporal trends in the prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection based upon 34,866 specimens from patients who attended the San Francisco, California, municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic between 1989 and 1998. HIV infection data were collected during annual blinded HIV serologic surveys.(More)