Sandra S. Wise

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Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a commonly used industrial metal, is a well known human lung carcinogen. Epidemiology and animal studies suggest that the particulate Cr(VI) compounds, specifically the water insoluble compounds, are the more potent carcinogens; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains unknown. Here we summarize recent Cr(VI)-induced human(More)
Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory toxicant and carcinogen, with solubility playing an important role in its carcinogenic potential. Zinc chromate, a water insoluble or 'particulate' Cr(VI) compound, has been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiology studies and to induce tumors in experimental animals, but its genotoxicity is poorly understood. Our(More)
Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and non-combatants is potentially frequent and widespread. DU is considered a suspected human carcinogen, affecting the bronchial cells of the lung. However, few investigations have studied DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the(More)
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are well-established human lung carcinogens. Solubility plays an important role in their carcinogenicity with the particulate Cr(VI) compounds being the most carcinogenic. Epidemiology and animal studies suggest that zinc chromate is the most potent particulate Cr(VI) compound; however, there are few comparative data(More)
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a widespread environmental contaminant and a known human carcinogen, generally causing bronchial cancer. Recent studies have shown that the particulate forms of Cr(VI) are the potent carcinogens. Particulate Cr(VI) is known to induce a spectrum of DNA damage such as DNA single strand breaks, Cr-DNA adducts, DNA-protein(More)
Pollution of the ocean by mercury (Hg) is a global concern. Hg persists, bioaccumulates and is toxic putting high trophic consumers at risk. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), is a sentinel of ocean health due to its wide distribution, longevity and high trophic level. Our aim was to survey Hg concentrations worldwide in the skin of free-ranging(More)
Arsenic is an oceanic pollutant of global concern due to its toxicity, ability to bioaccumulate and continued input into the environment by anthropogenic activities. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is an emerging aquatic model for both human disease and ocean health having global distribution and high trophic level. The aim of this study was to(More)
The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and(More)
Carcinogenesis is thought to be a multistep process, with clonal evolution playing a central role in the process. Clonal evolution involves the repeated 'selection and succession' of rare variant cells that acquire a growth advantage over the remaining cell population through the acquisition of 'driver mutations' enabling a selective advantage in a(More)
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a human lung carcinogen. Cr(VI) is a particularly important and dangerous carcinogen, because there is widespread exposure to it both occupationally and to the general public. However, despite the potential for widespread exposure and the fact that the lung is its target organ, there are few reports of the genotoxicity of(More)