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OBJECTIVE It has been argued that the relationship between depression and diabetes is bi-directional, but this hypothesis has not been explicitly tested. This systematic review examines the bi-directional prospective relationships between depression and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A search was conducted using Medline for publications from(More)
Five Arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) and represent two ancient plant UGE clades might be involved in the regulation of cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis. We tested this hypothesis in a genome-wide reverse genetic study. Despite significant contributions of each gene to total UGE activity, none was essential for normal(More)
The role of Delta4-unsaturated sphingolipid long-chain bases such as sphingosine was investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Identification and functional characterization of the sole Arabidopsis ortholog of the sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase was achieved by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. A P. pastoris mutant disrupted in the(More)
Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has only one sphingolipid class with a head group based on phosphoinositol, the yeast Pichia pastoris as well as many other fungi have a second class, glucosylceramide, which has a glucose head group. These two sphingolipid classes are in addition distinguished by a characteristic structure of their ceramide(More)
Fungal glucosylceramides play an important role in plant-pathogen interactions enabling plants to recognize the fungal attack and initiate specific defense responses. A prime structural feature distinguishing fungal glucosylceramides from those of plants and animals is a methyl group at the C9-position of the sphingoid base, the biosynthesis of which has(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine trends in the prevalence of diabetes among delivery hospitalizations in the U.S. and to describe the characteristics of these hospitalizations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Hospital discharge data from 1994 through 2004 were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Diagnosis codes were selected for gestational diabetes mellitus(More)
We used cross-sectional data on 2,660 black and 2,611 Mexican-American adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006) to investigate the association between metropolitan-level racial/ethnic residential segregation and obesity and to determine whether it was mediated by the neighborhood socioeconomic environment.(More)
BACKGROUND Compared to whites, U.S. Hispanics have higher obesity rates; U.S. Asians have lower rates. However Hispanics and Asians are each comprised of several ethnic subgroups that differ with respect to country of origin, immigration history, and geographic distribution across the U.S. Among adolescents, ethnic differences in obesity have been(More)
OBJECTIVE US birth and longer length of US residence among the foreign-born have been linked to higher anthropometric measures. However, previous studies have been cross sectional and few have examined heterogeneity by ethnic group. Cross-sectional findings that show immigrant weight converging to US-born levels with longer time in the United States imply(More)
PURPOSE We investigated associations of acculturation with various types of activity (moderate-vigorous leisure-time physical activity [LTPA], moderate-vigorous work- and transportation-related physical activity, and sedentary activity), and whether these activities mediated the acculturation-obesity association among Mexican-Americans. DESIGN(More)