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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact, non-invasive and high-resolution imaging technique, suited to study early cardiovascular development. Alterations in hemodynamic conditions during early development are known to lead to cardiac defects, presumably as a result of changes in cardiac biomechanics produced by the alterations. In this paper,(More)
Wall shear stresses (WSS) exerted by blood flow on cardiac tissues modulate growth and development of the heart. To study the role of hemodynamic conditions on cardiac morphogenesis, here, we present a methodology that combines imaging and finite element modeling to quantify the in vivo blood flow dynamics and WSS in the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) of early(More)
Heart morphogenesis and growth are influenced by hemodynamic forces (wall shear stress and blood pressure) acting on the walls of the heart. Mechanisms by which hemodynamic forces affect heart development are not well understood, in part because of difficulties involved in measuring these forces in vivo. In this paper, we show how wall shear stress in the(More)
Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein cofactor of activated blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIa) that is required for hemostatic thrombin generation at sites of blood vessel injury. Membrane-associated TF detected in circulating blood of healthy subjects, referred to as intravascular or circulating TF has been shown to contribute to(More)
Pulmonary surfactant spreads on the thin ( approximately 0.1 microm) liquid layer that lines the alveoli, forming a film that reduces surface tension and allows normal respiration. Pulmonary surfactant deposited in vitro on liquid layers that are several orders of magnitude thicker, however, does not reach the low surface tensions ( approximately 0.001 N/m)(More)
In pregnant women, the diabetic condition results in a three- to fivefold increased risk for fetal cardiac malformations as a result of elevated glucose concentrations and the resultant osmotic stress in the developing embryo and fetus. Heart development before septation in the chick embryo was studied under two hyperglycemic conditions. Pulsed(More)
The protease thrombin is required for normal hemostasis and pathologic thrombogenesis. Since the mechanism of coagulation factor XI (FXI)-dependent thrombus growth remains unclear, we investigated the contribution of FXI to thrombus formation in a primate thrombosis model. Pretreatment of baboons with a novel anti-human FXI monoclonal antibody (aXIMab; 2(More)
Four-dimensional (4-D) imaging of the embryonic heart allows study of cardiac morphology and function in vivo during development. However, 4-D imaging of the embryonic heart using current techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), is limited by the rate of image acquisition. Here, we present a nongated 4-D imaging strategy combined with an(More)
The ability to measure in vivo strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart is one of the key requirements for understanding the mechanisms of cardiac development. Due to its high temporal and spatial resolution as well as its fast imaging capability, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the(More)
Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for(More)