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Very preterm birth is associated with significant neurodevelopmental morbidity, with 10% to 15% of these infants later developing cerebral palsy and up to 50% experiencing learning disabilities. The nature of the cerebral lesion predisposing these infants to such impairments is not fully understood but is likely related to both cerebral injury and(More)
Cerebral cortical development involves complex changes in cellular architecture and connectivity that occur at regionally varying rates. Using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to analyze cortical microstructure, previous studies have shown that cortical maturation is associated with a progressive decline in water diffusion anisotropy. We(More)
Abnormal development of the brain during fetal life is now thought to contribute to the aetiology of many functional and behavioural disorders that manifest throughout life. Many factors are likely to underlie such abnormal development including genetic makeup and an adverse intrauterine environment. This review will focus on prenatal hypoxic-ischemic(More)
PURPOSE Early life stress has enduring behavioral and neuroendocrine effects, particularly in hippocampus and amygdala. This may be relevant to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) that arises from these structures. In rats, we tested the hypothesis that early postnatal stress, in the form of maternal separation (MS), creates vulnerability to limbic(More)
Intrauterine growth-restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in the guinea pig results in long-term deficits in brain myelination and could therefore contribute to altered neural function. CPI was induced by unilateral(More)
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is associated with high rates of depression and anxiety. A bidirectional causal relationship has been suggested, with these psychiatric comorbidities themselves enhancing epileptogenesis, possibly via hypercortisolemia. We examined the effects on epileptogenesis of chronic supplementation with low-dose corticosterone(More)
This study examines the effects of a chronic prenatal insult on both the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB proteins and the structural development of the fetal hippocampus and cerebellum. Chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) was induced via unilateral ligation of the uterine artery from midgestation to near term in the(More)
Recent studies have linked fetal exposure to a suboptimal intrauterine environment with adult hypertension. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to see whether cortisol treatment administered to the ewe for 2 days at 27 days of gestation (term approximately 150 days) resulted in high blood pressure in offspring; 2) to study the effect of the same(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate(More)