Sandra Pienaar

Learn More
Host recognition of mycobacterial surface molecules occurs through toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 6. The adaptor protein TIRAP mediates down stream signalling of TLR2 and 4, and polymorphisms in the TIRAP gene (TIRAP) have been associated with susceptibility and resistance to tuberculosis (TB) in adults. In order to investigate the role of polymorphic(More)
INTRODUCTION Interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) are increasingly used for tuberculosis (TB) infection, but their incremental value beyond patient demographics, clinical signs and conventional tests for active disease has not been evaluated in children. METHODS The incremental value of T-SPOT.TB was assessed in 491 smear-negative children from two(More)
BACKGROUND Urine tests for mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan might be useful for point-of-care diagnosis of tuberculosis in adults with advanced HIV infection, but have not been assessed in children. We assessed the accuracy of urine lipoarabinomannan testing for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and molecular features of the first South African family with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM1). METHODS Diagnoses were based on immunoglobulin results and the absence of CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression on activated T-cells. Complete molecular characterisation involved CD40L cDNA(More)
  • 1