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Influenza virus remains a serious health threat, owing to its ability to evade immune surveillance through rapid genetic drift and reassortment. Here we used a human non-immune antibody phage-display library and the H5 hemagglutinin ectodomain to select ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that were effective against all group 1 influenza viruses tested,(More)
Software architectures represent the design for describing the main parts of a software system. In software projects, different stakeholders with different roles may need to share the documentation generated during the project. Also, during the architecture construction phase we need to communicate the architecture to the stakeholders involved in the(More)
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) establishes latency in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG), and germinal centers of pharyngeal tonsil. Periodically BHV-1 reactivates from latency, virus is shed, and consequently virus transmission occurs. Two transcripts, the latency related (LR) RNA and ORF-E, are abundantly expressed in TG of latently infected(More)
The aerobic biodegradability of four antimicrobials (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim) was investigated in sewage collected at four treatment stages (primary treatment, activated sludge treatment, aerobic nitrification process, and after disinfection of treated sewage) of a municipal sewage treatment plant. The(More)
The estimation of phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among a group of organisms is a fundamental first step toward understanding its biological diversification. The time of the most recent or last common ancestor (LCA) of extant platyrrhines is one of the most controversial among scholars of primate evolution. Here we use two molecular based(More)
Over the last decade, geometric morphometric methods have been applied increasingly to the study of human form. When too few landmarks are available, outlines can be digitized as series of discrete points. The individual points must be slid along a tangential direction so as to remove tangential variation, because contours should be homologous from subject(More)
The developmental processes that contribute to variation of morphological traits are the subject of considerable interest when attempting to understand phenotypic evolution. It is well demonstrated that most characteristics of tooth pattern can be modified by tinkering conserved signal pathways involved in dental development. This effect can be evaluated by(More)
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), like other α-herpesvirinae subfamily members, establishes latency in sensory neurons. Periodically BHV-1 reactivates from latency, resulting in virus shedding and spread to uninfected cattle. Although reactivation from latency does not usually lead to recurrent disease, the latency-reactivation cycle is crucial for virus(More)
In this study, the authors examined the role of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) Us9 in the anterograde transport of the virus from trigeminal ganglia (TG) to nose and eye upon reactivation from latency. During primary infection, both BHV-1 Us9-deleted and BHV-1 Us9-rescued viruses replicated efficiently in the nasal and ocular epithelium. However, upon(More)
The latency-related (LR) RNA encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is abundantly expressed and alternatively spliced in trigeminal ganglia. A mutant BHV-1 strain that contains three stop codons at the beginning of LR open reading frame (ORF)-2 (LR mutant virus) does not express ORF-2 or an adjacent reading frame that lacks an initiating ATG (RF-C). Calves(More)