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Unlike MOLGEN, VT's decisions about part selection and placement are so interdependent that plausible reasoning (guessing) is a major feature of its search for a solution. Thus, VT's problem-solving strategy is predominantly one of constructing an approximation and successively refining it. Systems that use plausible reasoning must be able to identify bad(More)
Salmonella invades mammalian cells by inducing membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis through actin remodelling. Because phosphoinositides are central to actin assembly, we have studied the dynamics of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) in HeLa cells during invasion by Salmonella typhimurium. Here we show that the outermost parts of the(More)
Reflecting a complex set of interactions with its host, Salmonella spp. require multiple genes for full virulence. Many of these genes are found in 'pathogenicity islands' in the chromosome. Salmonella typhimurium possesses at least five such pathogenicity islands (SPI), which confer specific virulence traits and may have been acquired by horizontal(More)
Survival and growth of salmonellae within host cells are important aspects of bacterial virulence. We have developed an assay to identify Salmonella typhimurium genes that are induced inside Salmonella-containing vacuoles within macrophage and epithelial cells. A promoterless luciferase gene cassette was inserted randomly into the Salmonella chromosome, and(More)
The ability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) to induce expression of a reporter gene linked to a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) from either the rat enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene or acyl-CoA oxidase [acyl-CoA:oxygen 2-oxidoreductase, EC] gene was examined by transient transfection(More)
SifA was originally identified as a virulence factor required for formation of Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs), elongated tubules rich in lysosomal glycoproteins that extend from the Salmonella-containing vacuole in infected epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that deletion mutants of ssaR, a component of the SPI-2 type III secretion system, do not(More)
The serine-threonine kinase Akt is a protooncogene involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Activation of Akt is initiated by binding to the phospholipid products of phosphoinositide 3-kinase at the inner leaflet of the plasma membranes followed by phosphorylation at Ser(473) and Thr(308). We have found that Akt is activated by(More)
Ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug that acts as a peroxisome proliferator, induces the transcription of genes encoding peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. To identify cis-acting promoter elements involved in this induction, 5.8 kilobase pairs of promoter sequence from the gene encoding rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC(More)
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, acts as a transcriptional repressor by antagonizing the functions of other nuclear hormone receptors and by actively silencing transcription. However, in certain contexts, COUP-TFII stimulates transcription directly. A(More)