Sandra Marcus

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Unlike MOLGEN, VT's decisions about part selection and placement are so interdependent that plausible reasoning (guessing) is a major feature of its search for a solution. Thus, VT's problem-solving strategy is predominantly one of constructing an approximation and successively refining it. Systems that use plausible reasoning must be able to identify bad(More)
The serine-threonine kinase Akt is a protooncogene involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Activation of Akt is initiated by binding to the phospholipid products of phosphoinositide 3-kinase at the inner leaflet of the plasma membranes followed by phosphorylation at Ser(473) and Thr(308). We have found that Akt is activated by(More)
The Ser-Thr kinase Akt is activated in epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. The bacterial effector SigD, which is translocated into host cells via the specialized type III secretion system, is essential for Akt activation. Here, we investigated the inositol phospholipid substrate preferences of SigD. Recombinant SigD preferentially(More)
Salmonella invades mammalian cells by inducing membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis through actin remodelling. Because phosphoinositides are central to actin assembly, we have studied the dynamics of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) in HeLa cells during invasion by Salmonella typhimurium. Here we show that the outermost parts of the(More)
SifA was originally identified as a virulence factor required for formation of Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs), elongated tubules rich in lysosomal glycoproteins that extend from the Salmonella-containing vacuole in infected epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that deletion mutants of ssaR, a component of the SPI-2 type III secretion system, do not(More)
Several Gram-negative bacterial pathogens have evolved a type III secretion system to deliver virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for disease. This specialized secretion process requires customized chaperones specific for particular effector proteins. The crystal structures of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia(More)
The human ABO(H) blood group antigens are produced by specific glycosyltransferase enzymes. An N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) uses a UDP-GalNAc donor to convert the H-antigen acceptor to the A antigen, whereas a galactosyltransferase (GTB) uses a UDP-galactose donor to convert the H-antigen acceptor to the B antigen. GTA and GTB differ only in the(More)
Survival and growth of salmonellae within host cells are important aspects of bacterial virulence. We have developed an assay to identify Salmonella typhimurium genes that are induced inside Salmonella-containing vacuoles within macrophage and epithelial cells. A promoterless luciferase gene cassette was inserted randomly into the Salmonella chromosome, and(More)
Ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic drug that acts as a peroxisome proliferator, induces the transcription of genes encoding peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. To identify cis-acting promoter elements involved in this induction, 5.8 kilobase pairs of promoter sequence from the gene encoding rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC(More)