Sandra M. Newton

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Tuberculosis continues to cause an unacceptably high toll of disease and death among children worldwide, particularly in the wake of the HIV epidemic. Increased international travel and immigration have led to a rise in childhood tuberculosis rates even in traditionally low burden, industrialised settings, and threaten to promote the emergence and spread of(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, and its biologically active metabolite, 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)), has pleiotropic immune effects. The mechanisms by which 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) protects against tuberculosis are incompletely understood. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced the growth of mycobacteria(More)
Extracts from forty-three plant species were selected on account of reported traditional uses for the treatment of TB and/or leprosy. These were assayed for antimycobacterial activities. A simple in vitro screening assay was employed using two model species of mycobacteria, M. aurum and M. smegmatis. Crude methanolic extracts from three of the plants, C.(More)
Neutrophils contain antimicrobial peptides with antituberculous activity, but their contribution to immune resistance to tuberculosis (TB) infection has not been previously investigated to our knowledge. We determined differential white cell counts in peripheral blood of 189 adults who had come into contact with patients diagnosed with active TB in London,(More)
Most cases of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) do not cause symptoms during the lifetime of the infected person. Longitudinal analysis of the immune response of healthy Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected people might, therefore, give insight into the basis of protective immunity. In a longitudinal study, we documented the effect that treatment had on(More)
Six major lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear preferentially transmitted amongst distinct ethnic groups. We identified a deletion affecting Rv1519 in CH, a strain isolated from a large outbreak in Leicester U.K., that coincidentally defines the East African-Indian lineage matching a major ethnic group in this city. In broth media, CH grew less(More)
RATIONALE Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis (TB) in the preantibiotic era. Prospective studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on antimycobacterial immunity have not previously been performed. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on antimycobacterial immunity and vitamin D status. METHODS A(More)
Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by several species of mycobacteria. Due to multi-drug resistant strains of mycobacteria and to a high prevalence of tuberculosis in patients who have acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of patients infected with the disease is increasing worldwide. Thus there is an urgent need for(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a major challenge to global health made worse by the spread of multidrug resistance. We therefore examined whether stimulating intracellular killing of mycobacteria through pharmacological enhancement of macroautophagy might provide a novel therapeutic strategy. Despite the resistance of MTB to killing by basal(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can degrade all components of pulmonary extracellular matrix. Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces production of a number of these enzymes by human macrophages, and these are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary cavitation in tuberculosis. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)(More)