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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are generated during normal cellular metabolism and are increased in acute injury and in many chronic disease states. When their production is inadequately regulated, ROS accumulate and irreversibly damage cell components, causing impaired cellular function and death.(More)
Neurons containing gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) are widely distributed throughout the primary auditory cortex (AI). We investigated the effects of endogenous GABA by comparing response properties of 110 neurons in chinchilla AI before and after iontophoresis of bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and/or CGP35348, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist.(More)
The representation of frequency was mapped in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of C57BL/6J (C57) mice during young adulthood (1.5-2 months) when hearing is optimal, and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age, a period during which progressive, high frequency, sensorineural hearing loss occurs in this strain. Maps were also obtained from CBA/CaJ mice which retain(More)
Azimuth functions (discharge rates evoked by tone bursts as a function of stimulus azimuth) were obtained from neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of C57 mice aged 2, 7 and 12 months. Because of a gene that affects the cochlea, C57 mice exhibit high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss at 7 and 12 months. Azimuth functions were examined for differences(More)
Age-related hearing loss in humans and many strains of mice is associated with a base-to-apex gradient of cochlear hair cell loss. To determine if copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) deficiency influences age-related cochlear pathology, we compared hair cell losses in cochleas obtained from 2-, 7-, and 17- to 19-month-old wild type (WT) mice with(More)
Ethacrynic acid (EA) is known to interact with aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin (GM). In the chinchilla, co-administration of GM and EA can produce hair cell lesions ranging from a small loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the base of the cochlea to complete destruction of all hair cells, depending on dosing parameters. Although hair cell loss(More)
Basic anatomical features were evaluated in the inferior colliculus (IC) of C57BL/6J and CBA/J mice across the adult life span (1.5 to 30 months of age). C57BL/6J mice exhibit progressive age-related cochlear pathology and become severely hearing-impaired during the second year of life; CBA/J mice exhibit little hearing loss as they age. Age had little(More)
Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) is a first-line defense against free radical damage in the cochlea and other tissues. To determine whether deficiencies in Cu/Zn SOD increase age-related hearing loss and cochlear pathology, we collected auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and determined cochlear hair cell loss in 13-month-old 129/CD-1 mice with(More)
The role of the olivocochlear bundle (OCB) in modulating noise-induced permanent injury to the auditory periphery was studied by completely sectioning the OCB fibers in chinchillas and exposing the animals while awake to a broad-band noise at 105 dB SPL for 6 h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was assessed by measuring 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the olivocochlear system in auditory processing by examining the long-term effects of cochlear de-efferentation on auditory nerve response properties in adult chinchillas. Spontaneous rates, response thresholds, tuning curves, discharge rate-level functions, and adaptation of single auditory nerve(More)