Sandra L. McFadden

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are generated during normal cellular metabolism and are increased in acute injury and in many chronic disease states. When their production is inadequately regulated, ROS accumulate and irreversibly damage cell components, causing impaired cellular function and death.(More)
Carboplatin preferentially destroys inner hair cells (IHCs) and type-I spiral ganglion neurons while sparing outer hair cells (OHCs). Loss of IHCs and type-I ganglion cells is associated with a significant reduction of the compound action potential (CAP). However, the cochlear microphonic (CM) potential and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs)(More)
Age-related hearing loss in humans and many strains of mice is associated with a base-to-apex gradient of cochlear hair cell loss. To determine if copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) deficiency influences age-related cochlear pathology, we compared hair cell losses in cochleas obtained from 2-, 7-, and 17- to 19-month-old wild type (WT) mice with(More)
Ethacrynic acid (EA) is known to interact with aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin (GM). In the chinchilla, co-administration of GM and EA can produce hair cell lesions ranging from a small loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the base of the cochlea to complete destruction of all hair cells, depending on dosing parameters. Although hair cell loss(More)
The hearing loss from exposure to noise and ototoxic drugs share a number of audiological and pathological similarities. Recent research has shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be a common factor in both noise- and drug-induced hearing loss. This review describes three experiments that point to ROS as a causative factor in both noise- and(More)
Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) is a first-line defense against free radical damage in the cochlea and other tissues. To determine whether deficiencies in Cu/Zn SOD increase age-related hearing loss and cochlear pathology, we collected auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and determined cochlear hair cell loss in 13-month-old 129/CD-1 mice with(More)
The protective effects of glutathione monoethylester (GEE) and GEE in combination with R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) were evaluated in the chinchilla when exposed to impulse (145 dB pSPL) or continuous (105 dB SPL, 4 kHz OB) noise. Six groups of 10 chinchillas were used as subjects. Before exposure to noise, the subjects were anesthetized, a 30(More)
Neurons containing gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) are widely distributed throughout the primary auditory cortex (AI). We investigated the effects of endogenous GABA by comparing response properties of 110 neurons in chinchilla AI before and after iontophoresis of bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and/or CGP35348, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist.(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the olivocochlear system in auditory processing by examining the long-term effects of cochlear de-efferentation on auditory nerve response properties in adult chinchillas. Spontaneous rates, response thresholds, tuning curves, discharge rate-level functions, and adaptation of single auditory nerve(More)
Reactive oxygen species, which are cytotoxic to living tissues, are thought to be partly responsible for noise-induced hearing loss. In this study R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA), a stable non-hydrolyzable adenosine analogue which has been found effective in upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity levels, was topologically applied to the round window of(More)