Sandra K. Halonen

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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is a common central nervous system infection in individuals with immunocompromised immune systems, such as AIDS patients. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is the main cytokine mediating protection against T. gondii. Our previous studies found that IFN-gamma significantly inhibits T. gondii in astrocytes via an IFN-gamma-inducible GTP-binding(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan pathogen of humans that can cause encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals such as those with AIDS. This encephalitis is due to reactivation of latent infection in T. gondii-seropositive patients. Latent organisms survive within tissue cysts, which are specialized parasitophorous vacuoles containing(More)
Challenge with the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces a potent CD8+ T-cell response that is required for resistance to infection, but many questions remain about the factors that regulate the presentation of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-restricted parasite antigens and about the role of professional and(More)
Neospora caninum is a recently identified apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. Neospora caninum is of significant economic importance as it causes neurological disease and abortion in numerous animals. Antibodies to BAG1/hsp30 (also known as BAG5), a T. gondii bradyzoite-specific protein, have been demonstrated to(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in the central nervous system, causing a severe and often fatal encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is the main cytokine preventing reactivation of Toxoplasma encephalitis in the brain. Microglia are important IFN-gamma-activated effector cells controlling the growth of T. gondii in the(More)
The interaction between the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole and vimentin-type intermediate filaments in Vero cells was investigated via immunofluorescence microscopy. A significant rearrangement of host cell vimentin around the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuoles occurs throughout the course of infection. Host cell vimentin associates with the(More)
Cytokines play a significant role in the regulation of Toxoplasma gondii in the central nervous system. Cytokine-activated microglia are important host defense cells in central nervous system infections. Recent evidence indicates that astrocytes can also be activated by cytokines to inhibit intracellular pathogens. In this study, we examined the effect of(More)
Autophagy has recently been implicated in the host defense against the intracellular protozoan pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, a major opportunistic pathogen of the central nervous system in immunosuppressed individuals. In both IFN gamma-activated macrophages and astrocytes, the p47 GTPases traffic to the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole, followed by(More)
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most common opportunistic infections affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in AIDS patients. Disease results from a reactivation of a latent infection in the brain resulting in a severe and necrotizing encephalitis. In this study we infected a primary culture from human fetal brain with T. gondii and studied(More)