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The neocortical GABAergic network consists of diverse interneuron cell types that display distinct physiological properties and target their innervations to subcellular compartments of principal neurons. Inhibition directed toward the soma and proximal dendrites is crucial in regulating the output of pyramidal neurons, but the development of perisomatic(More)
Early sensory experience instructs the maturation of neural circuitry in the cortex. This has been studied extensively in the primary visual cortex, in which loss of vision to one eye permanently degrades cortical responsiveness to that eye, a phenomenon known as ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). Cortical inhibition mediates this process, but the precise(More)
Inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex include a vast array of subtypes, varying in their molecular signatures, electrophysiological properties, and connectivity patterns. This diversity suggests that individual inhibitory classes have unique roles in cortical circuits; however, their characterization to date has been limited to broad(More)
Functional maturation of GABAergic innervation in the developing visual cortex is regulated by neural activity and sensory inputs and in turn influences the critical period of ocular dominance plasticity. Here we show that polysialic acid (PSA), presented by the neural cell adhesion molecule, has a role in the maturation of GABAergic innervation and ocular(More)
The circadian clock nucleus of the mammalian brain is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each driven by the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. A critical question is how these individual oscillators are organized into an internal clock that times behavior and physiology. We examined the neural organization of the(More)
We found that in mice, following eye opening, fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons had well-defined orientation tuning preferences and that subsequent visual experience broadened this tuning. Broad inhibitory tuning was not required for the developmental sharpening of excitatory tuning but did precede binocular matching of excitatory(More)
The endogenous circadian clock of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) can be reset by light to synchronize the biological clock of the brain with the external environment. This process involves induction of immediate-early genes such as the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) and results in a stable shift in the timing of behavioral and(More)
Neurons of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate self-sustained rhythms of action potential frequency having a period of approximately 24 h. It is generally believed that cell autonomous circadian oscillation of a network of biological clock genes drives the circadian rhythm in neuronal firing rate through as yet unspecified effects on the(More)
Period1 (Per1) is one of several clock genes driving the oscillatory mechanisms that mediate circadian rhythmicity. Per1 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which contain oscillator cells that drive circadian rhythmicity in physiological and behavioral responses. We examined a transgenic mouse in which degradable green(More)
We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2) upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a(More)