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The neocortical GABAergic network consists of diverse interneuron cell types that display distinct physiological properties and target their innervations to subcellular compartments of principal neurons. Inhibition directed toward the soma and proximal dendrites is crucial in regulating the output of pyramidal neurons, but the development of perisomatic(More)
The development of GABAergic inhibitory circuits is shaped by neural activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of GABA in regulating GABAergic innervation in the adolescent brain, when GABA is mainly known as an inhibitory transmitter. Conditional knockdown of the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme GAD67 in(More)
Early sensory experience instructs the maturation of neural circuitry in the cortex. This has been studied extensively in the primary visual cortex, in which loss of vision to one eye permanently degrades cortical responsiveness to that eye, a phenomenon known as ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). Cortical inhibition mediates this process, but the precise(More)
Inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex include a vast array of subtypes, varying in their molecular signatures, electrophysiological properties, and connectivity patterns. This diversity suggests that individual inhibitory classes have unique roles in cortical circuits; however, their characterization to date has been limited to broad(More)
Functional maturation of GABAergic innervation in the developing visual cortex is regulated by neural activity and sensory inputs and in turn influences the critical period of ocular dominance plasticity. Here we show that polysialic acid (PSA), presented by the neural cell adhesion molecule, has a role in the maturation of GABAergic innervation and ocular(More)
Neurons of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate self-sustained rhythms of action potential frequency having a period of approximately 24 h. It is generally believed that cell autonomous circadian oscillation of a network of biological clock genes drives the circadian rhythm in neuronal firing rate through as yet unspecified effects on the(More)
The circadian clock nucleus of the mammalian brain is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each driven by the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. A critical question is how these individual oscillators are organized into an internal clock that times behavior and physiology. We examined the neural organization of the(More)
Endogenous cyclic activation of a specific set of genes, including Period 1 (Per1), drive circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a biological clock nucleus of the brain. We have produced transgenic mice in which a degradable form of recombinant jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the mouse Period 1 (mPer1) gene promoter.(More)
We found that in mice, following eye opening, fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons had well-defined orientation tuning preferences and that subsequent visual experience broadened this tuning. Broad inhibitory tuning was not required for the developmental sharpening of excitatory tuning but did precede binocular matching of excitatory(More)