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A set of isogenic mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168, insertionally inactivated in the genes encoding a number of lytic enzymes and a sigma factor (sigma D, which controls the expression of a number of autolysins) was constructed. Phenotypic analysis of the mutants determined the individual and combined roles of the autolysins in vegetative growth. The major(More)
Inflammation removes developing and mature lymphocytes from the bone marrow (BM) and induces the appearance of developing B cells in the spleen. BM granulocyte numbers increase after lymphocyte reductions to support a reactive granulocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that inflammation, acting primarily through tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), mobilizes(More)
To analyze the human kappa chain repertoire and the influences that shape it, a single cell PCR technique was used that amplified Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements from genomic DNA of individual human B cells. More than 350 productive and 250 nonproductive Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements were sequenced. Nearly every functional Vkappa gene segment was used in(More)
The starvation survival response (SSR) of Listeria monocytogenes EGD is induced under glucose- or multiple-nutrient-, but not amino-acid limitation. 0.01-0.2% of the population remain viable even after 20 d and the survivors show a reduced cell size and increased cross-protection to several environmental stresses. The development of the SSR may therefore be(More)
The gene encoding a 102 kDa autolysin has been cloned from an expression library of Listeria monocytogenes EGD genomic DNA, using a direct screening protocol. The encoded protein has two domains, an N-terminal enzymic domain showing a high level of homology to the amidase domain of the major autolysin (atl) of Staphylococcus aureus, and a C-terminal,(More)
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