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Hot thyroid nodules (HTNs) in children are rare. Their reported malignancy rate is higher than in adults. However molecular data are rare. We present clinical and molecular data for 33 consecutive (29 benign and 4 malignant) HTNs. 17/29 Benign HTNs (59%) harbored somatic TSHR mutations. The most commonly observed mutation was M453T (in 8/29 samples). T632I(More)
The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with a characteristic large extracellular domain (ECD). TSHR activation is initiated by binding of the hormone ligand TSH to the ECD. How the extracellular binding event triggers the conformational changes in the transmembrane domain (TMD) necessary for intracellular G(More)
OBJECTIVE New in vivo mutations in G protein-coupled receptors open opportunities for insights into the mechanism of receptor activation. Here we describe the molecular mechanism of constitutive TSH receptor (TSHR) activation in an Austrian family with three generations of familial nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. PATIENTS The index patient was diagnosed(More)
Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR) have a large extracellular domain (ECD) divided into the leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain for binding of the glycoprotein hormones and the hinge region (HinR), which connects the LRR domain with the transmembrane domain (TMD). Understanding of the activation mechanism of GPHRs is hindered by the unknown interaction of(More)
G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)(More)
The general use of enzymatic cleaners for soft contact lenses has led to reports of incidents of allergic reactions in previously sensitized patients. In light of this, experiments were performed to assess the relative allergenic potential of four such enzymes: papain, subtilisin A, subtilisin B, and pancreatin. Mice immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) with(More)
In 27 families with familial non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (FNAH) reported up to date, the onset of hyperthyroidism varies from 18 months to 60 years. Also the manifestation of goitres is variable in these families. A 74-year-old woman first presented at the age of 69 years with tachyarrhythmia and hypertension. After initial treatment of her hypertension(More)
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