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The Evolved Packet Core (EPC), defined by 3GPP, provides the possibility of integrating 3GPP as well as non-3GPP access network technologies. This opens up new options for mobility through the use of inter system handover over several access network technologies. This paper provides an overview of the introduced component Access Network Discovery and(More)
The number of mobile devices, such as smartphones, netbooks, notebooks, etc. will increase in the next few years and with the availability of Long Term Evolution (LTE) capable devices and networks the data rates are increasing. As a result of this, the data traffic volume will massively increase by 2015 and therefore the core and access networks have to be(More)
—A multiconductor transmission line (MTL) model for the time domain considering losses, incident fields and skin-effects for the modeling language VHDL-AMS was developed. The model is based on the FDTD method. It can be extended by various VHDL-AMS circuit files and used for linear and non-linear time domain simulations. Modern standardized modeling(More)
The requirements on networks referring to bandwidth, QoS and mobility are increasing because of the huge traffic growth, the increasing amount of mobile devices and the always-on-demand from subscribers, no matter if the end user devices are stationary or moving. The predicted growth and the fulfilment of the QoS and mobility requirements must be(More)
BACKGROUND This study describes the transmission of border disease virus (BDV) from a persistently infected calf to seronegative heifers in early pregnancy, resulting in persistently infected fetuses. On day 50 of pregnancy (= day 0 of the infection phase), six heifers were co-housed in a free stall with a bull calf persistently infected with BDV (pi BVD)(More)
The Evolved Packet Core (EPC), IPbased, as defined by 3GPP, is the core network for the 4th generation networks. Within the EPC there are two mobility protocols defined to use on the S5/S8 interface between the Serving Gateway (SGW) and the Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW). The architecture and func-tionalities of the two involved gateways are different(More)
BACKGROUND One of the most challenging conditions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is the treatment of perianal fistulae. We have recently shown that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role during CD-fistulae development. Dickkopf-homolog 1 (DKK-1) is known to play a key role during EMT. Here, we investigated a role for DKK-1 in the(More)
In order to manage the exponential growth of traffic in mobile network environments and the increasing requirements on bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS) and mobility, the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) infrastructure has to provide for an appropriate traffic distribution among the available networks. This paper proposes a new real-time traffic(More)
BACKGROUND Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. CASE PRESENTATION The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal(More)
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