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The development of an in vivo procedure for the induction of massive proliferation, directed migration, and neurodifferentiation (PMD) in the damaged adult central nervous system would hold promise for the treatment of human neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We investigated the in vivo induction of PMD in the forebrain of the adult(More)
The present study examines the spatial distribution within rat locus coeruleus of neurons projecting to particular brain regions. In order to accurately recreate, in digital and pictorial formats, the spatial distribution of neurons for the entire nucleus locus coeruleus, three-dimensional reconstructions were created which specified the location of each(More)
Both clinical and animal studies have shown that adolescents undergo a late maturation of the central nervous system, which may underlie adolescent typical behaviors. In particular, decreased behavioral response to cocaine has been found in adolescents as compared to adults. In the present study, cocaine was used as a tool to explore adolescent brain(More)
This study quantitatively addresses the hypothesis that there is a systematic relationship between the morphologic characteristics of locus neurons and the particular target regions they innervate. Following horseradish peroxidase injections into selected terminal fields, locus coeruleus cell bodies are heavily labeled by retrograde transport so that somata(More)
Although initiation of drug abuse occurs primarily during adolescence, little is known about the central effects of nicotine and other abused drugs during this developmental period. Here evidence, derived from studies in rodents, is presented that suggests that tobacco use initiation during early adolescence results from a higher reward value of nicotine.(More)
We have previously shown that acetaldehyde, a constituent of tobacco smoke, increases nicotine self-administration in adolescent, but not adult, rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether acetaldehyde influences other behavioral, endocrine, or neuronal responses to nicotine at either age. Juvenile (postnatal day (P) 27) and adult (P90) male(More)
The characteristics of the islands of Calleja complex (ICC) in the basal forebrain of the rat were studied with immunohistochemistry, histofluorescence, acetylcholinesterase staining, India ink vascular perfusions, electron microscopy, and steroid autoradiography. The ICC contains clusters of granule cells and associated medium-sized and large cells in the(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent smoking is associated with health risk behaviors, including high-risk sexual activity and illicit drug use. Using rat as an animal model, we evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of a 4-day, low-dose nicotine pretreatment (60 μg/kg; intravenous) during adolescence and adulthood. Nicotine(More)
Previous autoradiographic studies which have localized alpha-2 adrenoceptors within brain have used tritiated derivatives of clonidine and other alpha-2 adrenergic agonists. In the present study we have compared the autoradiographic distributions of binding sites labeled by two reportedly selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists, [3H]rauwolscine and(More)
Individuals with attentional and emotional dysfunctions are most at risk for smoking initiation and subsequent nicotine addiction. This article presents converging findings from human behavioral research, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience on smoking as self-medication for attentional and emotional dysfunctions. Nicotine and other tobacco constituents(More)