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Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of(More)
Ultrafiltration (UF) of whey is a major membrane based process in the dairy industry. However, commercialization of this application has been limited by membrane fouling, which has a detrimental influence on the permeation rate. There are a number of different chemical and physical cleaning methods currently used for cleaning a fouled membrane. It has been(More)
When subjected to an ultrasonic standing-wave field, cavitation bubbles smaller than the resonance size migrate to the pressure antinodes. As bubbles approach the antinode, they also move toward each other and either form a cluster or coalesce. In this study, the translational trajectory of two bubbles moving toward each other in an ultrasonic standing wave(More)
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