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Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis, gravimetric and chemical techniques have been used to study hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass. Exothermic degradation initiates above 195 °C, due to breakdown of the xylose ring from hemicellulose, which may be similar to reactions occurring during the early stage pyrolysis of dry(More)
BACKGROUND The investigation of structural organisation in lignocellulose materials is important to understand changes in cellulase accessibility and reactivity resulting from hydrothermal deconstruction, to allow development of strategies to maximise bioethanol process efficiencies. To achieve progress, wheat straw lignocellulose and comparative model wood(More)
A rapid and systematic strategy based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) substructural techniques was utilized to elucidate the degradation products of paclitaxel, the active ingredient in Taxol. This strategy integrates, in a single instrumental approach, analytical(More)
Analytical methodology developed for the trace analysis of natural products in crude extracts was utilized for the rapid and systematic structure elucidation of taxanes in Taxus extracts and process intermediates. This method integrates analytical hplc, uv detection, uv spectroscopy, full-scan ionspray mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry on-line.(More)
A new method for studying cellular uptake has been developed. This method is based on selected reaction monitoring liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of preparations from cell culture. The limit of detection for paclitaxel was approximately 0.1 microM intracellular concentration. This method has been utilized to study the uptake of(More)
The structure of the antitumor antibiotic himastatin was determined using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical degradation techniques. Himastatin is a unique dimeric cyclohexadepsipeptide joined through a biphenyl linkage between two oxidized tryptophan units. The gross structure of the dimer was established through degradative ozonolysis. Himastatin(More)
The 21-amino acid peptides siamycin II (BMY-29303) and siamycin I (BMY-29304), derived from Streptomyces strains AA3891 and AA6532, respectively, have been found to inhibit HIV-1 fusion and viral replication in cell culture. The primary sequence of siamycin II is CLGIGSCNDFAGCGYAIVCFW. Siamycin I differs by only one amino acid; it has a valine residue at(More)
Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to study the external regions of starch granules. Native starches (wheat, potato, maize, waxy maize and amylomaize) were analysed and compared to gelatinised and acid-hydrolysed starches. The IR spectra of potato and amylomaize starches were closer to that of highly ordered(More)