Sandra Close Kirkwood

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OBJECTIVE To delineate the progression of symptoms in the early and middle stages of Huntington disease (HD). DESIGN A survey of individuals with symptomatic HD completed by a first-degree relative. SETTING The National Huntington Disease Research Roster for Patients and Families, Indianapolis, Ind. PARTICIPANTS The survey included 1238 individuals(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the neurological and psychometric characteristics of presymptomatic gene carriers and non-gene carriers who are at risk for developing Huntington's disease so as to characterise early signs of disease and to identify markers of neurological function that could be used to assess the impact of experimental therapies on the progression of(More)
OBJECTIVE To confirm that subtle changes in motor function and reaction time are present in presymptomatic individuals carrying the expanded Huntington disease (HD) allele. DESIGN A case-control, double-blind study comparing presymptomatic HD gene carriers (PSGCs) and nongene carriers (NGCs) at risk for HD. SETTING The Department of Medical and(More)
We compared oculomotor control among individuals in the early stages of Huntington's disease (HD), with that of individuals who are presymptomatic HD gene carriers (PSGC) and nongene carriers (NGC). The oculomotor testing paradigm included both traditional tests and a novel experimental procedure to assess visual scanning. Traditional tests elicited(More)
Acute phencyclidine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy humans and psychotic episodes in schizophrenics. Although phencyclidine is known as a N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antagonist (NMDA-R), the molecular events underlying the behavioral symptoms remain largely unknown. Statistical analysis of oligonucleotide microarray data was used to(More)
Several approaches were taken to identify the loci contributing to the quantitative and qualitative phenotypes in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 simulated data set. To identify possible quantitative trait loci (QTL), the quantitative traits were analyzed using SOLAR. The four replicates identified as the "best replicates" by the simulators, 42, 25, 33,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether longitudinal changes in cognitive and motor function can be detected among clinically presymptomatic individuals carrying the Huntington disease (HD) allele. DESIGN A longitudinal, case-control, double-blind study comparing presymptomatic gene carriers and non-gene carriers at risk for HD examined an average of 3.7 years(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether longitudinal changes in personality as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) can be detected among clinically presymptomatic individuals carrying the expanded Huntington disease (HD) allele. BACKGROUND Emotional symptoms are considered one of the cardinal features of HD. However, the literature(More)
Using the simulated data set from Genetic Analysis Workshop 13, we explored the advantages of using longitudinal data in genetic analyses. The weighted average of the longitudinal data for each of seven quantitative phenotypes were computed and analyzed. Genome screen results were then compared for these longitudinal phenotypes and the results obtained(More)
White-matter hyperintensities (WMHI) are frequently associated with cerebrovascular risk factors in the elderly, particularly hypertension, and have been interpreted as a subclinical form of ischemic brain damage. WMHI, clinical stroke and blood pressures show significant genetic influences. The objective of this study was to determine whether a(More)