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Systemic opioids produce analgesia in part by activating bulbospinal noradrenergic pathways. Spinally released norepinephrine (NE) has been suggested to produce analgesia in part by stimulating alpha2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic spinal interneurons to release acetylcholine (ACh). We hypothesized that this spinally released ACh would stimulate synthesis of(More)
OBJECTIVE Elevated pre-pregnancy BMI, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are known determinants of fetal growth. The role of placental weight is unclear. We aimed to examine the extent to which placental weight mediates the associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and GDM with birth weight-for-gestational age,(More)
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