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Given the mounting evidence for involvement of delta opioid receptors in the tolerance and physical dependence of mu opioid receptor agonists, we have investigated the possible physical interaction(More)
Treatment of pain with opioids is limited by their potential abuse liability. In an effort to develop analgesics without this side effect, a series of bivalent ligands containing a mu-opioid receptor(More)
Simultaneous action of morphine on supraspinal and spinal sites produces a multiplicative interaction for antinociception which may be important for the analgesia produced by systemically(More)