Sandra C. Mwakwari

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Because of their photo-optical distinctiveness and biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have proven to be powerful tools in various nanomedicinal and nanomedical applications. In this review article, we discuss recent advances in the application of AuNPs in diagnostic imaging, biosensing and binary cancer therapeutic techniques. We also provide an(More)
The breast cancer treatment drug tamoxifen has been widely administered for more than three decades. This small molecule competes with 17beta-estradiol for binding to estrogen receptor, a hormone receptor upregulated in a majority of breast cancers, subsequently initiating programmed cell death. We have synthesized a thiol-PEGylated tamoxifen derivative(More)
Despite decades of research on the bacterial ribosome, the ribosomal exit tunnel is still poorly understood. Although it has been suggested that the exit tunnel is simply a convenient route of egress for the nascent chain, specific protein sequences serve to slow the rate of translation, suggesting some degree of interaction between the nascent peptide(More)
Inhibition of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) hold great promise in cancer therapy because of their demonstrated ability to arrest proliferation of nearly all transformed cell types. Of the several structurally distinct small molecule HDACi reported, macrocyclic depsipeptides have the most complex recognition cap-group moieties and present an(More)
Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) function is a validated therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Of the several structurally distinct small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) reported, macrocyclic depsipeptides possess the most complex cap groups and have demonstrated excellent HDAC inhibition potency and isoform selectivity.(More)
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are an emerging class of novel anti-cancer drugs that cause growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of tumor cells. In addition, they have shown promise as anti-parasitic, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-rheumatologic and immunosuppressant agents. To date, several structurally distinct small molecule HDACi have been(More)
Gold nanoparticles are known to activate anti-tumor potential in macrophage immune cells; however, the subsequent effects of these cells on others nearby are poorly understood. A novel gold-nanoparticle conjugate that selectively targets and induces cytotoxic activity of tumor-associated macrophages towards breast cancer cells in co-culture is synthesized.(More)
Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment and several distinct small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been reported. We have previously identified a new class of non-peptide macrocyclic HDACi derived from 14- and 15-membered macrolide skeletons. In these(More)
b-Bilene hydrochlorides are shown to be improved intermediates for the synthesis of metallo-isoporphyrins in enhanced yields (28% vs. 6%). Several new diamagnetic zinc(II) and a novel paramagnetic copper(II) isoporphyrin salts were also obtained using this approach. Metal-free isoporphyrins were also isolated. In vitro studies using human carcinoma HEp2(More)