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The ideal vector for cell and tissue modification does not depend on integration but rather behaves as an independent functional unit that replicates as an episome. Based on a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR), we have introduced, in 2006, an approximately 4-kb replicating nonviral minicircle able to exploit the cellular replication machinery in a(More)
Injection of linearized DNA constructs into the pronuclei of fertilized mammalian eggs is a standard method for producing transgenic embryos and animals. Here, we show that injection of covalently closed circular (ccc) plasmids into the cytoplasm of fertilized bovine and murine eggs is a highly efficient and simple alternative for ectopic expression of(More)
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