Sandra Balmer

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Milk banking refers to the collection, processing, and storage of human milk and feeding that milk to someone other than the donor's own baby. In some ways it is a more simplified and less controlled form of wet nursing. Similarly it has had periods of favour and times when it was unpopular, as happened to wet nursing in the 15th century because of the(More)
This study examined the faecal flora on days 4, 14, and 28 of 17 breast fed babies and 26 bottle fed babies receiving a modern infant formula based on demineralized whey. Generally among breast fed babies bifidobacteria and staphylococci were the predominant organisms, whereas in the formula fed babies the predominant organisms were enterococci, coliforms,(More)
The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. It is thought that this difference in flora may be one important reason why breast-fed babies suffer less from gastrointestinal disease. Differences in intestinal flora are reflected in the profile of faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Very little is known about faecal(More)
The faecal flora of breast fed babies differs from that of bottle fed babies. We have shown that the use of a whey predominant formula rather than a casein predominant one induced a faecal flora generally closer to that of breast fed babies but substantial differences remained. The whey proteins of breast milk include much more lactoferrin than is found in(More)
We have measured by reversed-phase HPLC concentrations of amino acids in plasma in groups of 80 normal appropriate-weight term babies fed from birth either a casein formula (WhiteCap SMA, n = 26), a whey formula (Gold Cap SMA, n = 26), or breast milk (n = 28). They were studied from day 11 to week 15 postpartum. The trend was towards an increase in amino(More)
Breast milk contains nucleotide salts that are only present in minimal amounts in modern infant formulas prepared from cows' milk. Nucleotides have been suggested as cofactors for the growth of bifidobacteria in vitro. Bifidobacteria are found to be more numerous in the faeces of breast fed babies compared with those of formula fed babies. Faecal flora were(More)
The faecal flora of a baby receiving a modern infant formula is substantially different from that of a breast fed baby. This difference is a little less when whey based formulas are used. The addition of bovine lactoferrin has no effect and there is some evidence that the presence of added iron in a formula moved the faecal flora further away from that of a(More)
Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and staphylococci are the predominant organisms in the faeces of breast fed babies whereas in formula fed babies coliforms, enterococci and bacteroides predominate. In vitro studies suggest that the mechanisms responsible are probably related to the acid base properties of the formula and 'immunological' proteins such as(More)