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The pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced (GC-induced) bone loss is unclear. For example, osteoblast apoptosis is enhanced by GCs in vivo, but they stimulate bone formation in vitro. This conundrum suggests that an intermediary cell transmits a component of the bone-suppressive effects of GCs to osteoblasts in the intact animal. Bone remodeling is(More)
In vitro infection of murine peritoneal macrophages with the protozoan Leishmania donovani has been found to alter the signaling parameters of the host. The present study indicates that the enhancement of intracellular ceramide level in macrophages after infection is a major event relating to macrophage dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated that(More)
Leishmania donovani, an intracellular protozoan parasite, challenges host defense mechanisms by impairing the signal transduction of macrophages. In this study we investigated whether interleukin-10 (IL-10)-mediated alteration of signaling events in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis is associated with macrophage deactivation. Primary in vitro(More)
This study explored the role of the proinflammatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 for development of antileishmanial activity. There was substantial inhibition in nitrite generation in Leishmania donovani-infected macrophages. A marked elevation of nitrite generation and induction of(More)
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a chronic inflammatory response resulting in the selective destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. We have previously demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) prepared from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for spontaneous type 1 diabetes, exhibit hyperactivation of NF-kappaB resulting in an increased capacity(More)
The ability of the leishmanial parasite UR6 to act as an immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic agent against Leishmania donovani infection in BALB/c mice was investigated. Unlike the virulent L. donovani AG83 (MOHOM/IN/1983/AG83), UR6 given through intracardiac route failed to induce visceral infection, but when it was injected subcutaneously, UR6(More)
The protein kinase C (PKC) family regulates macrophage function involved in host defense against infection. In the case of Leishmania donovani infection, the impairment of PKC-mediated signaling is one of the crucial events for the establishment of parasite into the macrophages. Earlier reports established that C-C chemokines mediated protection against(More)
We discuss the generalization of recently discovered BPS configurations, corresponding to the planar string networks, to non-planar ones by considering the U-duality symmetry of type II string theory in various dimensions. As an explicit example, we analyze the string solutions in 8-dimensional space-time, carrying SL(3) charges, and show that by aligning(More)
Staphylococcus aureus produces a particular morphological variant called small colony variant (SCV) which is responsible for persistent subclinical infections in predisposed individuals and is usually resistant to aminoglycosides and cell wall active antibiotics. Infections by SCV of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulty in laboratory(More)