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Eukaryotic cells control the initiation of DNA replication so that origins that have fired once in S phase do not fire a second time within the same cell cycle. Failure to exert this control leads to genetic instability. Here we investigate how rereplication is prevented in normal mammalian cells and how these mechanisms might be overcome during tumor(More)
A 21-base pair RNA duplex that perfectly matches an endogenous target mRNA selectively degrades the mRNA and suppresses gene expression in mammalian tissue culture cells. A single base mismatch with the target is believed to protect the mRNA from degradation, making this type of interference highly specific to the targeted gene. A short RNA with mismatches(More)
Geminin is a cellular protein that associates with Cdt1 and inhibits Mcm2-7 loading during S phase. It prevents multiple cycles of replication per cell cycle and prevents episome replication. It also directly inhibits the HoxA11 transcription factor. Here we report that geminin forms a parallel coiled-coil homodimer with atypical residues in the dimer(More)
Anxiety and depression are major chronic mood disorders, and the etiopathology for each appears to be repeated exposure to diverse unpredictable stress factors. Most of the studies on anxiety and related mood disorders are performed in rodents, and a good model is chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). In this study, we have attempted to understand the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the cellular mechanism that allows subretinal hemorrhage to cloud the vitreous. METHODS We simulated subretinal hemorrhage in a rabbit model by injecting autologous blood beneath the retina. At the first appearance of a cloud in the vitreous a vitrectomy was performed and using a surgical microscope, the retina was searched for(More)
A cell limits its DNA replication activity to once per cell division cycle to maintain its genomic integrity. Studies in a variety of organisms are elucidating how these controls are exercised. Key amongst these is the regulation of replication initiator proteins such as Cdt1. Cdt1 is present in cells in G1 phase where it is required for initiation of(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the geometry, penetration force, and cutting profile of 23-gauge trocar systems for pars plana vitrectomy based on their grinding methods in a standardized laboratory setting. METHODS In this experimental study, Eleven different commercially available 23-gauge sclerotomy trocar systems were divided into 4 groups according to(More)
When mammalian cells experience radiation insult, DNA replication is stalled to prevent erroneous DNA synthesis. UV-irradiation triggers proteolysis of Mcm10, an essential human replication factor, inhibiting the ongoing replication. Here, we report that Mcm10 associates with E3 ubiquitin ligase comprising DNA damage-binding protein, DDB1, cullin, Cul4 and(More)
Urine samples from 1000 pre-school children aged 4 weeks to 5 years, attending welfare centres, nursery schools or day nurseries in one London borough, were cultured by the dip-slide method. Five children had asymptomatic bacteriuria, a prevalence of 0-5 per cent. The need for screening the urine of pre-school children is discussed.
A tertiary care center-based prospective case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the association of contrast sensitivity with LogMAR visual acuity and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in 205 cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 115 controls. LogMAR visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were scored using ETDRS and Pelli-Robson charts,(More)