Sandeep Kumar

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Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases,(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is thought to be a key signaling molecule involved in limb bud patterning along the proximodistal or anteroposterior axes functioning through induction of Meis2 and Shh, respectively. Here, we utilize Raldh2-/- and Raldh3-/- mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis to demonstrate that RA signaling is not required for limb expression of Shh and(More)
To obtain insight into the mechanism of transferred DNA (T-DNA) integration in a long-lived tree system, we analysed 30 transgenic aspen lines. In total, 27 right T-DNA/plant junctions, 20 left T-DNA/plant junctions, and 10 target insertions from control plants were obtained. At the right end, the T-DNA was conserved up to the cleavage site in 18 transgenic(More)
The electrostatic free energy contribution of an ion pair in a protein depends on two factors, geometrical orientation of the side-chain charged groups with respect to each other and the structural context of the ion pair in the protein. Conformers in NMR ensembles enable studies of the relationship between geometry and electrostatic strengths of ion pairs,(More)
Two types of noncovalent bonding interactions are present in protein structures, specific and nonspecific. Nonspecific interactions are mostly hydrophobic and van der Waals. Specific interactions are largely electrostatic. While the hydrophobic effect is the major driving force in protein folding, electrostatic interactions are important in protein folding,(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that controls growth and development. The first step of RA synthesis is controlled by enzymes of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) families that catalyze oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde. The second step of RA synthesis is controlled by members of the(More)
The Protein Information Resource (PIR) is an integrated public resource of protein informatics. To facilitate the sensible propagation and standardization of protein annotation and the systematic detection of annotation errors, PIR has extended its superfamily concept and developed the SuperFamily (PIRSF) classification system. Based on the evolutionary(More)
Aggregation of a biotherapeutic is of significant concern and judicious process and formulation development is required to minimize aggregate levels in the final product. Aggregation of a protein in solution is driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work we have focused on aggregation as an intrinsic property of the molecule. We have studied the(More)