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The nucleotide sequences of the F and M2 mRNAs of strain A51908 of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were determined by sequencing cDNA of an intracellular dicistronic mRNA. Comparison of the F mRNA sequence with those of other BRSV strains showed that there was extensive sequence identity at both the nucleotide (95% identity) and amino acid (94%(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene, the intergenic regions in the nucleocapsid protein (NP)-phosphoprotein (P), P-matrix protein (M) and M-fusion glycoprotein gene junctions and the trailer region of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Beaudette C were determined. The NP gene is 1747 nt long and encodes a protein of(More)
The primary vector species for bluetongue virus (BTV) in the United States, Culicoides variipennis, was orally infected with BTV serotype 10, BTV serotype 17, or a mixture of the two viruses. The recovery of virus from the infected flies was low following a period of extrinsic incubation. Electrophoretic analysis of progeny virus from singly infected flies(More)
—Monolithic 3D ICs (M3D) are an emerging technology that offers an ultra-high-density 3D integration due to the extremely small size of monolithic inter-tier vias. We explore various design styles available in M3D and present design techniques to obtain GDSII-level signoff quality results for each of these styles. We also discuss various challenges facing(More)
In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on the impact of power delivery network (PDN) on full-chip wirelength, routability, power, and thermal effects in monolithic 3D ICs. Our studies first show that the full PDN worsens routing congestion more severely in monolithic 3D ICs than in 2D designs due to the significant reduction in resources for 3D(More)
In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of the unique thermal behavior in monolithic 3D ICs. In particular, we study the impact of the thin inter-layer dielectric (ILD) between the device tiers on vertical thermal coupling. In addition, we develop a fast and accurate compact full-chip thermal analysis model based on non-linear regression technique.(More)
Specific interactions between the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the phosphoprotein (P) of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) have been investigated using a yeast-based two-hybrid system. Plasmids encoding the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain fused with the N gene and GAL4 activation domain fused with the P gene were cotransfected into competent yeast(More)
The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) mRNA of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) strain A51908 have been determined. The P mRNA is 860 nucleotides long with a single large open reading frame and the encoded polypeptide is 241 amino acids long. Comparison with the corresponding sequences of human respiratory(More)
The interaction of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) phosphoprotein (P) with nucleocapsid (N) and large polymerase (L) proteins was investigated using an intracellular BRSV-CAT minigenome replication system. Coimmunoprecipitation assays using P-specific antiserum revealed that the P protein can form complexes with N and L proteins. Deletion mutant(More)
Sequence variation in the attachment glycoprotein G of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was determined. The nucleotide sequences of the G mRNAs of the A51908, VC464 and FS-1 strains of BRSV were compared with the published sequence of the BRSV strain 391-2. Nucleotide sequence alignment showed that overall they are highly conserved, with 90 to 97%(More)