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A model of s interacting species is considered with two types of dynami-cal variables. The fast variables are the populations of the species and slow variables the links of a directed graph that defines the catalytic interactions among them. The graph evolves via mutations of the least fit species. Starting from a sparse random graph, we find that an(More)
The NF-kappaB signaling system is involved in a variety of cellular processes including immune response, inflammation, and apoptosis. Recent experiments have found oscillations in the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor [Hoffmann, A., et al. (2002) Science 298, ; Nelson, D. E., et al. (2004) Science 306, .] How the cell(More)
We build a simple model for feedback systems involving small RNA (sRNA) molecules based on the iron metabolism system in the bacterium E. coli, and compare it with the corresponding system in H. pylori which uses purely transcriptional regulation. This reveals several unique features of sRNA-based regulation that could be exploited by cells. Firstly, we(More)
BACKGROUND Recently there has been a lot of interest in identifying modules at the level of genetic and metabolic networks of organisms, as well as in identifying single genes and reactions that are essential for the organism. A goal of computational and systems biology is to go beyond identification towards an explanation of specific modules and essential(More)
The causes of major and rapid transitions observed in biological macroevolution as well as in the evolution of social systems are a subject of much debate. Here we identify the proximate causes of crashes and recoveries that arise dynamically in a model system in which populations of (molecular) species coevolve with their network of chemical interactions.(More)
The Wnt signaling pathway transducing the stabilization of β-catenin is essential for metazoan embryo development and is misregulated in many diseases such as cancers. In recent years models have been proposed for the Wnt signaling pathway during the segmentation process in developing embryos. Many of these include negative feedback loops where Axin2 plays(More)
The molecular network in an organism consists of transcription/translation regulation, protein-protein interactions/modifications and a metabolic network, together forming a system that allows the cell to respond sensibly to the multiple signal molecules that exist in its environment. A key part of this overall system of molecular regulation is therefore(More)
It has been reported that the number of transcription factors encoded in prokaryotic genomes scales approximately quadratically with their total number of genes. We propose a conceptual explanation of this finding and illustrate it using a simple model in which metabolic and regulatory networks of prokaryotes are shaped by horizontal gene transfer of(More)
Gene expression noise results in protein number distributions ranging from long-tailed to Gaussian. We show how long-tailed distributions arise from a stochastic model of the constituent chemical reactions and suggest that, in conjunction with cooperative switches, they lead to more sensitive selection of a subpopulation of cells with high protein number(More)