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In present work a new XNOR gate using three transistors has been presented, which shows power dissipation of 550.7272µW in 0.35µm technology with supply voltage of 3.3V. Minimum level for high output of 2.05V and maximum level for low output of 0.084V have been obtained. A single bit full adder using eight transistors has been designed using proposed XNOR(More)
The Digital controlled oscillator (DCO) is the core element of all digital phase locked loop (ADPLL) system. Here, we propose DCO structures with digital control, reduced hardware and low power consumption. Different DCOs are based on ring based topology having 3, 4 & 5 control bits. Number of control bits can be increased as per the requirement of output(More)
An artificial intelligence approach for the design of infinite-impulse response (IIR) digital filters through Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is presented. IIR filter is essentially a digital filter with Recursive responses. Since the error surface of digital IIR filters is generally nonlinear and multimodal, so global optimization techniques are required(More)
This paper determines coefficients of infinite-impulse response (IIR) using Simulated Annealing (SA). IIR filter is essentially a digital filter with Recursive responses. Since the error surface of digital IIR filters is generally nonlinear and multimodal, global optimization techniques are required in order to avoid local minima. In this paper heuristic(More)
Frequency offset affects the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system. The FRFT based OFDM is considered in this article to minimize this affect. The expressions of signal to interference ratio (SIR) due to inter carrier interference (ICI) has been derived for frequency selective fading channel and doubly selective fading channels(More)
In present work, improved designs for voltage controlled ring oscillators (VCO) using three transistors XNOR/XOR gates have been presented. Supply voltage has been varied from [1.8-1.2] V in proposed designs. In first method, the VCO design using three XNOR delay cells shows frequency variation of [1.900-0.964] GHz with [279.429-16.515] µW power consumption(More)