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Packaging of Bacillus subtilis phage SPP1 DNA into viral capsids is initiated at a specific DNA site termed pac. Using an in vivo assay for pac cleavage, we show that initiation of DNA synthesis and DNA packaging are uncoupled. When the DNA products of pac cleavage were analyzed, we could detect the pac end that was destined to be packaged, but we failed to(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the B. subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is described. The genome is 44,007 bp in size and has a base composition of 43.7% dG + dC. Only 32.2 kb are essential for phage amplification under laboratory conditions. Transcription using only the 'heavy strand' is asymmetric. Eighty-one orfs organized in five early and four late(More)
The left end of the genome of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is represented by EcoRI DNA fragments 12 and 1 (EcoRI-12 and EcoRI-1). A number of different deletions were identified in EcoRI-1. A detailed physical and genetic map of EcoRI-1 from wild-type (wt) phage and SPP1 deletion mutants was constructed. Genes encoding essential products involved in(More)
Genetic analysis of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 defective in gene 35 shows that the gene 35 product (G35P) is essential for SPP1 growth. The defect in growth of SPP1tsl17 and SPP1tsl20F at nonpermissive temperature is overcome by wild-type gene 35 expressed from a plasmid. The region where gene 35 maps was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the(More)
Initiation of SPP1 DNA packaging requires the gene 1 and gene 2 products (G1P and G2P), which are different subunits of the terminase enzyme. G1P specifically recognizes the phage packaging initiation region (pac). The apparent equilibrium constant for the G1P-pac-DNA complex was estimated to be 9 nM. DNase I footprinting experiments reveal that the pac(More)
Initiation of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 DNA replication requires the products of genes 38, 39 and 40 (G38P, G39P and G40P). G38P specifically binds two discrete regions, which are 32.1 kb apart in a linear map of the SPP1 genome. One of these target sites, which maps at the left end of the phage genome, within gene 38, was shown to function as an(More)
The low-copy-number, 9.0-kb pSM19035-derived plasmid pBT233, is stably inherited in Bacillus subtilis. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of pBT233 has been determined. Analysis of the nt sequence revealed nine major open reading frames (orfs). The repS, erm1 and erm2 genes have been assigned to three of these orfs, and given the gene order, repS-orf(More)
The development of SPP1 has been studied in several B. subtilis mutants conditionally defective in initiation of DNA replication. Initiation of SPP1 replication is independent of the host DnaA (replisome organizer), DnaB, DnaC and DnaI products, but requires the DnaG (DNA primase) and the DNA gyrase. Furthermore, SPP1 replication is independent of the DnaK(More)
The small subunit of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 terminase (G1P) forms a sequence-specific nucleoprotein complex with the SPP1 non-encapsidated end (pacL site) during initiation of DNA encapsidation. Gel mobility shift assay was used to study the G1P-pacL interaction. Distamycin, a minor groove binder that induces local distortion of the DNA,(More)
Gene 1 product (G1P) of the related Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages SPP1, SF6, and rho 15 is essential for DNA maturation and packaging. A DNA segment containing gene 1 of phage SF6 or rho 15 origin was cloned and sequenced. SF6 and rho 15 G1P (both with predicted molecular mass of 16.7 kDa) share 71% identity with G1P of SPP1. The G1P of all three phages(More)