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Active sliding between doublet microtubules of sea urchin sperm axonemes that were demembranated with Triton X-100 in the presence or absence of calcium was induced with ATP and elastase at various concentrations of Ca2+ to examine the effects of Ca2+ on the direction of the power stroke of the dynein arms. Dark-field light microscopy of microtubule sliding(More)
The chemical composition of the cell wall of Sz. pombe is known as beta-1,3-glucan, beta-1,6-glucan, alpha-1,3-glucan and alpha-galactomannan; however, the three-dimensional interactions of those macromolecules have not yet been clarified. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a three-layered structure: the outer layer is electron-dense, the adjacent(More)
Transcriptional repressor FL11 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus OT3, was crystallized in its dimer form in complex with a DNA duplex, TGAAAWWWTTTCA. Chemical contacting of FL11 to the terminal 5 bps, and DNA bending by propeller twisting at WWW confirmed specificity of the interaction. Dimer-binding sites were identified in promoters of(More)
The stiffness (flexural rigidity) of live sperm flagella, Triton-demembranated flagella (axonemes), trypsin-digested axonemes, and doublet microtubules of the axonemes in echinoderms was determined from the relationship between their deformation when a stream of medium was applied and the viscous resistance of the medium acting on the flagellum. The(More)
The classification feast/famine regulatory proteins (FFRPs) encompasses archaeal DNA-binding proteins with Escherichia coli transcription factors, the leucine-responsive regulatory protein and the asparagine synthase C gene product. In this paper, we describe two forms of the archaeal FFRP FL11 (pot0434017), both assembled from dimers. When crystallized, a(More)
The rotational movement of a spermatozoon around its longitudinal axis was investigated by two methods: by observing a spermatozoon attached vertically to a coverslip by the tip of its head, and by observing a spermatozoon freely swimming in a medium by means of 'double-focal microscopy', which yielded simultaneous images at two different focal planes.(More)
Itraconazole (ITCZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was studied for its effects on the morphology and function of L929 fibroblasts. L929 fibroblasts were cultured for 20 h with ITCZ or one of several other triazoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, and hydroxy-itraconazole [ITCZ-OH]) at the concentration of 0.5 microg/ml. Among these agents, only ITCZ and its(More)
Feast/famine regulatory proteins (FFRPs) comprise a single group of transcription factors systematically distributed throughout archaea and eubacteria. In the eubacterial domain in Escherichia coli, autotrophic pathways are activated and heterotrophic pathways are repressed by an FFRP, the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), in some cases in(More)
Immunological functions peak at around puberty and gradually decline thereafter with advancing age. The immunological decline mainly occurs in the T cell-dependent immune system and is generally associated with an increase in not only susceptibility to infections but also incidence of autoimmune phenomena. The age-related changes in T-cell dependent immune(More)