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AIMS Endothelial dysfunction is a key triggering event in the development of cardiovascular diseases and the current study explored this phenomenon in the context of inflammation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway during chronic diabetes. MAIN METHODS alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) and(More)
Insulin secretion and islet glucose metabolism were compared in pancreatic islets isolated from GK/Wistar (GK) rats with spontaneous Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and control Wistar rats. Islet insulin content was 24.5 +/- 3.1 microU/ng islet DNA in GK rats and 28.8 +/- 2.5 microU/ng islet DNA in control rats, with a mean (+/- SEM) islet(More)
By using biochemical and light-microscopical techniques, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) has recently been found in adult pancreas, co-localized immunohistochemically with insulin in the islet B-cells. The purpose of this study was to trace IGF-2 immunoreactivity (IR) at the ultrastructural level in normal and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Using a(More)
The impact of genetic factors and maternal diabetes on glucose tolerance and pancreatic beta-cell function was studied in first generation (F1) offspring generated in crosses between the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK)-Wistar rat and normoglycemic control Wistar rats (W). The (GK x W) F1 hybrids were offspring of either male GK (mGK) and female(More)
The GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rat is a lean model of type 2 diabetes in which the diabetic state was spontaneously induced. We recently demonstrated the presence in GK rats of two functional point mutations in the promoter region of the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) gene that resulted in overexpression of AC3 mRNA associated with increased cAMP generation. The AC3(More)
Previous studies have indicated that various conditions under which an increased functional load is posed on the pancreatic islets, e.g. partial pancreatectomy and continuous glucose infusions, may influence the microcirculation of the pancreas. To investigate further the effects of elevated functional demand on the islets, the blood perfusion of the whole(More)
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), a member of the insulin family, regulates cell growth and differentiation. The IGF-II gene is localized close to the insulin gene in man and rat. IGF-II peptide binds weakly to the insulin receptor and exerts insulin-like effects on the blood glucose level. We studied IGF-II in endocrine pancreas in an animal model of(More)
We have studied the responses of insulin and somatostatin to glucose and arginine in the perfused pancreas of GK rats, which spontaneously develop mild noninsulin-dependent diabetes without concomitant obesity. Our GK rats have been obtained after at least 42 generations of inbreeding of Wistar rats with initial selection for increased blood glucose levels(More)
In pancreatic islet extracts of rats with hereditary non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (GK rats), the activity of the mitochondrial FAD-linked glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, as measured by either a radioisotopic or colorimetric procedure, only represented 30 to 40% of that found in control rats. This decrease in enzymic activity was not attributable(More)
Islets from Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats from our colony, despite marked impairment of glucose-induced insulin release, used glucose and produced CO2 at a rate 3 times that of islets from control Wistar rats. Almost all glucose used was accounted for in CO2 and lactate production. The percentages of glucose carbon used collected in CO2 and lactate were similar(More)