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Metformin is an insulin-sensitizing agent with potent antihyperglycemic properties. Its efficacy in reducing hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is similar to that of sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin. Metformin-based combination therapy is often superior to therapy with a single hypoglycemic agent. The antihyperglycemic properties of(More)
Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major public health problems leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Although traditionally viewed as separate disease entities that increase in prevalence with aging, accumulating evidence indicates that there are similar pathophysiological mechanisms underlying both diseases. In addition to(More)
The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has risen dramatically in the past decade, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and both impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension are important contributors to rising rates of ESRD. Obesity, especially the visceral type, is associated with peripheral resistance to insulin actions(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as an independent cardiovascular disease risk state. The relationship between CKD and cardiovascular disease in volunteer and general populations has not been explored. METHODS The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a community-based health-screening program to raise(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in the United States, caused in part by older age and increasing prevalences of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. CKD is silent and undetected until advanced stages. The study of populations with earlier stages of kidney disease may improve outcomes of CKD. METHODS The Kidney Early(More)
The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets(More)
INTRODUCTION Epidemiologic studies have shown the importance of habitual sleep duration as an index of health and mortality risks. However, little has been done to ascertain ethnic differences in sleep duration in a national sample. This study compares sleep duration in a sample of black and white participants in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in the CKD population. Early diabetes identification through targeted screening programs is important for the development of preventive strategies. METHODS This is a cross-sectional analysis of the National Kidney(More)
Diabetes insipidus, characterized by excretion of copious volumes of dilute urine, can be life-threatening if not properly diagnosed and managed. It can be caused by two fundamentally different defects: inadequate or impaired secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland (neurogenic or central diabetes insipidus) or impaired or(More)
Numerous epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of obesity and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) is extraordinarily high and that the rates have increased dramatically in the last three decades. In addition, epidemiological data demonstrate that obesity, the CRS, and diabetes are inextricably linked and are all associated with an(More)