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BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as an independent cardiovascular disease risk state. The relationship between CKD and cardiovascular disease in volunteer and general populations has not been explored. METHODS The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a community-based health-screening program to raise(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in the United States, caused in part by older age and increasing prevalences of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. CKD is silent and undetected until advanced stages. The study of populations with earlier stages of kidney disease may improve outcomes of CKD. METHODS The Kidney Early(More)
Anti-epileptic medications encompass a wide range of drugs including anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, enzyme inducers or inhibitors, with a variety effects, including induction of cytochrome P450 and other enzyme, which may lead to catabolism of vitamin D and hypocalcemia and other effects that may significantly effect the risk for low bone mass and(More)
Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may(More)
BACKGROUND Elderly individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high rates of comorbid conditions, including cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, and CKD-related complications. In individuals aged > or = 65 years, we sought to describe the prevalence of CKD determined from laboratory test results in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP; n(More)
OBJECTIVE There are national mandates to reduce blood pressure (BP) to <130/85 mmHg, LDL cholesterol to <100 mg/dl, and HbA(1c) to <7% and to institute aspirin therapy in patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of patients in urban institutions with diabetes and hypertension who meet these treatment goals. (More)
Change of address notices, including both the old and new addresses of the subscriber, should be sent at least one month in advance.side the United States and possessions, there is no additional charge for surface delivery. Student and resident: United States and possessions, $227.00; all other countries , $300.00. To receive student/resident rate, orders(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to describe CKD awareness and identify factors associated with optimal glycemic control in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals both aware and unaware of CKD. METHODS This cross-sectional analysis compared Kidney Early Evaluation(More)
A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia,(More)
Obesity is a common problem in much of the western world today in that is linked directly with several disease processes, notably, hypertension. It is becoming clear that the adipocyte is not merely an inert organ for storage of energy but that it also secretes a host of factors that interact with each other and may result in elevated blood pressure. Of(More)