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Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins are characterized by their ability to modulate cell death. Bcl-2 and some of its homologues inhibit apoptosis, whereas other family members, such as Bax, will accelerate apoptosis under certain conditions. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a complementary DNA that encodes a previously unknown(More)
Early stages of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular and frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson's disease, are frequently associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A minimally invasive screening test for early detection of MCI may be used to select optimal patient groups in clinical trials, to monitor disease(More)
In spite of numerous publications on potential diagnostic application of circulating DNA and transrenal nucleic acid (Tr-NA) analysis, few, if any, tests based on this technology are available in clinical labs. This delay in test development and implementation is caused, at least in part, by the deficit in robust methods for isolation of short nucleic acid(More)
Human urine has been shown to possess submicrogram per milliliter amounts of DNA. We show here that DNA isolated from human urine resolves into two size categories: the large species, greater than 1 kb, being predominantly cell associated and heterogeneous in size, and the smaller, between 150 to 250 bp, being mostly non-cell associated. We showed that the(More)
BACKGROUND Cell-free DNA from dying cells recently has been discovered in human blood plasma. In experiments performed on animals and humans, we examined whether this cell-free DNA can cross the kidney barrier and be used as a diagnostic tool. METHODS Mice received subcutaneous injections of either human Raji cells or purified (32)P-labeled DNA. DNA was(More)
Quiescent mouse embryonic C3H/10T1/2 cells are more resistant to different proapoptotic stimuli than are these cells in the exponential phase of growth. However, the exponentially growing 10T1/2 cells are resistant to inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis, whereas quiescent cells die upon these treatments. Conditioned medium from quiescent 10T1/2 cells(More)
Involvement of ceramide signaling in the initiation of apoptosis induction in myocardial cells by in vitro and in vivo ischemia and reperfusion was analyzed. Synthetic cell permeable C2-ceramide induced apoptotic death of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. In vitro ischemia (oxygen/serum/glucose deprivation) led to a progressive accumulation of ceramide(More)
A small portion of DNA from apoptotic cells escapes complete degradation, appears in blood as oligonucleosomal-size fragments, is excreted in the urine, and can be used for diagnostic purposes. More detailed study revealed that transrenal DNA (Tr-DNA) belongs to a relatively low molecular-weight (150-250 bp) fraction, thereby requiring more careful(More)
Early disease detection with a minimally invasive screening test will significantly increase effectiveness and decrease the cost of treatment. Here we propose a framework of a novel approach – Universal Screening Test (UST) for the detection of pathological processes in a particular organ system, organ, or tissue by RT-qPCR analysis of circulating cell-free(More)
It is well documented that plasma contains DNA from tissues throughout the body, including developing fetuses, and tumors. A portion of this DNA crosses the kidney barrier and appears in urine (i.e., transrenal DNA). However, molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms of the circulating DNA phenomenon and renal clearance are in an early phase of(More)