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All rights resewed. This book, or parts thereoj may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher.(More)
The confidence limit is a standard measure of the accuracy of the result in any statistical analysis. Most of the confidence limits are derived as follows. The data are first divided into subsections and then, under the ergodic assumption, the temporal mean is substituted for the ensemble mean. Next, the confidence limit is defined as a range of standard(More)
SUMMARY A new method, the Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT), developed initially for natural and engineering sciences has now been applied to financial data. The HHT method is specially developed for analysing non-linear and non-stationary data. The method consists of two parts: (1) the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and (2) the Hilbert spectral analysis.(More)
1–3. Under drought conditions , burning in Indonesia is a disproportionate contributor to these emissions, as seen in the 1997/98 haze disaster 1,4. Yet our understanding of the frequency, severity and underlying causes of severe biomass burning in Indonesia is limited because of the absence of satellite data that are useful for fire monitoring before the(More)
The frequencies flown on the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are sensitive to liquid water near the earth's surface. These frequencies are primarily atmospheric window channels, which receive the majority of their radiation from the surface. Liquid water near the surface depresses the emissivity as a function of wavelength. The relationship between(More)
Soil quality models developed for ecodistrict polygons (EDP) and the polygons of the soil landscapes of Canada (SLC) to monitor the concentration of soil organic matter require daily climate data as an important input. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide a method that interpolates the daily station data onto the 894 SLC polygons and 150 EDP in(More)
[1] In semi-arid areas, multiple equilibrium states of an ecosystem (e.g., grassland and desert) are found to coexist, and the transition from grassland to desert is often abrupt at the boundary. A simple ecosystem model is developed to provide the biophysical explanation of this phenomenon. The model has three variables: living biomass, wilted biomass, and(More)
[1] In this paper, we evaluate the performance of 19 coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) in twentieth-century simulations of the Sahel during the 1970s to 1990s. Correlation, regression, and cluster analyses are applied to observations and model outputs including Sahel monthly precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and sea surface temperature(More)
This paper intends to investigate the time scales of land surface hydrology and enhance the understanding of the hydrological cycle between the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil. A three-layer model for land surface hydrology is developed to study the temporal variation and vertical structure of water reservoirs in the vegetation–soil system in response to(More)
Based on the physico-biophysical considerations, mathematical analysis and some approximate formulations generally adopted in meteorology and ecology, an ecological dynamic model of grassland is developed. The model consists of three interactive variables, i.e. the biomass of living grass, the biomass of wilted grass, and the soil wetness. The major(More)