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SUMMARY A new method, the Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT), developed initially for natural and engineering sciences has now been applied to financial data. The HHT method is specially developed for analysing non-linear and non-stationary data. The method consists of two parts: (1) the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and (2) the Hilbert spectral analysis.(More)
1–3. Under drought conditions , burning in Indonesia is a disproportionate contributor to these emissions, as seen in the 1997/98 haze disaster 1,4. Yet our understanding of the frequency, severity and underlying causes of severe biomass burning in Indonesia is limited because of the absence of satellite data that are useful for fire monitoring before the(More)
The frequencies flown on the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are sensitive to liquid water near the earth's surface. These frequencies are primarily atmospheric window channels, which receive the majority of their radiation from the surface. Liquid water near the surface depresses the emissivity as a function of wavelength. The relationship between(More)
Soil quality models developed for ecodistrict polygons (EDP) and the polygons of the soil landscapes of Canada (SLC) to monitor the concentration of soil organic matter require daily climate data as an important input. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide a method that interpolates the daily station data onto the 894 SLC polygons and 150 EDP in(More)
The confidence limit is a standard measure of the accuracy of the result in any statistical analysis. Most of the confidence limits are derived as follows. The data are first divided into subsections and then, under the ergodic assumption, the temporal mean is substituted for the ensemble mean. Next, the confidence limit is defined as a range of standard(More)
This paper provides a systematic procedure for computing the regional average of climate data in a subregion of the earth surface using the covariance function written in terms of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). The method is optimal in the sense of minimum mean square error (mse) and gives an mse estimate of the averaging results. The random(More)
[1] In semi-arid areas, multiple equilibrium states of an ecosystem (e.g., grassland and desert) are found to coexist, and the transition from grassland to desert is often abrupt at the boundary. A simple ecosystem model is developed to provide the biophysical explanation of this phenomenon. The model has three variables: living biomass, wilted biomass, and(More)
[1] In this paper, we evaluate the performance of 19 coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) in twentieth-century simulations of the Sahel during the 1970s to 1990s. Correlation, regression, and cluster analyses are applied to observations and model outputs including Sahel monthly precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and sea surface temperature(More)
An improved land–ocean global monthly precipitation anomaly reconstruction is developed for the period beginning in 1900. Reconstructions use the available historical data and statistics developed from the modern satellite-sampled period to analyze variations over the historical presatellite period. This paper documents the latest in a series of(More)