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[1] In semi-arid areas, multiple equilibrium states of an ecosystem (e.g., grassland and desert) are found to coexist, and the transition from grassland to desert is often abrupt at the boundary. A simple ecosystem model is developed to provide the biophysical explanation of this phenomenon. The model has three variables: living biomass, wilted biomass, and(More)
This study describes a method of calculating the mean squared error (MSE) incurred when estimating the spherical harmonic coefficients of a climatological field that is sampled at a small network of points. The method can also be applied to the coefficients of any other set of orthonormal basis functions that are defined on the sphere. It, therefore,(More)
This study provides an adaptive data analysis method that assesses Alberta's acid depo-sition monitoring network of 9 stations and the relative importance of each station. The method is based on the assessment of the mean square error (MSE) of sampling expressed in terms of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The annual potential acid input (PAI) data of(More)
This paper uses the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) method to make time–frequency diagnostic analyses of four monthly time series of the All these data are the global land and ocean average of precipitation anomalies with respect to the mean of the entire data period. The MERG and REOF are spectral reconstructions based on historical data. The GPCP and CMAP(More)
We present a new characterization of termination of general logic programs. Most existing termination analysis approaches rely on some static information about the structure of the source code of a logic program, such as modes/types, norms/level mappings, models/interargument relations, and the like. We propose a dynamic approach that employs some key(More)
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