Samuel S. Malamba

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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence the biological, social and behavioral determinants of pregnancy in HIV-infected women. However, there are limited longitudinal data on the reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on ART in Africa. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a prospective cohort design, we analyzed trends in desire(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of transmission of HIV-1 within married couples in rural Uganda according to the sero-status of the partners. DESIGN Estimation of HIV incidence rates for 2200 adults in a population cohort followed for 7 years comparing male-to-female with female-to-male transmission and sero-discordant with concordant sero-negative(More)
Pediatric adherence to daily drug regimens has not been widely assessed in Africa where majority of HIV infected children live. Using in-depth interviews of 42 HIV-infected children taking ART and/or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and 42 primary caregivers, at a comprehensive HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda, we evaluated their adherence experiences for purposes of(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about how to implement antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited countries. We assessed the UNAIDS/Uganda Ministry of Health HIV Drug Access Initiative--one of the first pilot antiretroviral programmes in Africa--in which patients paid for their medications at negotiated reduced prices. METHODS We assessed(More)
BACKGROUND An association between HIV-1 and malaria is expected in theory, but has not been convincingly shown in practice. We studied the effects of HIV-1 infection and advancing immunosuppression on falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria. METHODS HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adults selected from a population-based cohort in rural Uganda were(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) is recommended for people with HIV infection or AIDS but is rarely used in Africa. We assessed the effect of such prophylaxis on morbidity, mortality, CD4-cell count, and viral load among people with HIV infection living in rural Uganda, an area with high rates of bacterial(More)
Diarrhea is frequent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but few interventions are available for people in Africa. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a home-based, safe water intervention on the incidence and severity of diarrhea among persons with HIV living in rural Uganda. Between April 2001 and November 2002,(More)
BACKGROUND The majority of people infected with HIV-1 live in Africa, yet little is known about the natural history of the disease in that continent. We studied survival times, disease progression, and AIDS-defining disorders, according to the proposed WHO staging system, in a population-based, rural cohort in Uganda. METHODS In 1990 we recruited a random(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine correlates of HIV-1 concordance for couples receiving voluntary HIV counseling and testing. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of couples receiving voluntary HIV counseling and testing in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS An interview and physical examination were conducted for 49 HIV-1-concordant (both partners infected with HIV) and 126(More)